Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GAMARRA, Agustin (gah-mar'-ra), Peruvian soldier, born in Cuzco, 27 August, 1785; died in Ingavi, Bolivia, 18 November, 1841. He studied theology in the College of San Buenaventura of his native City, but entered the Spanish army in 1809 as a volunteer. He rose gradually to the rank of lieutenant colonel, served in Bolivia against the Argentine forces, and in 1821 came to Lima in command of the 2d battalion of the regiment of Cuzco. He then joined the Independents, was promoted colonel and then brigadier, and served as chief of the staff of the Peruvian contingent under Bolivar and Sucre in 1824. He was promoted general of division, appointed prefect of Cuzco, and in 1828 was commander-in-chief of the army in the campaign against Bolivia, concluding the war by the treaty of Piquisa, for which he was rewarded with the rank of grand marshal. He afterward pronounced against La-mar, president of Peru, was declared provisional president in 1829, and in the same year elected president for four years. His administration was progressive, although constantly interrupted by revolutionary movements. When his term was finished he delivered the executive to General Orbegozo, but soon headed a rebellion against him. He acknowledged the government of Orbegozo in 1834, and emigrated to Bolivia. When General Santa Cruz interfered in the Peruvian struggle between Orbegozo and Salaverry, Gamarra opposed the intervention with a force that he had raised in the south of Peru, but was defeated by Santa Cruz at Yanacocha, and banished to Chili in June, 1835. When war was declared between Chili and Peru in 1837, Gamarra joined the second Chilian expedition, and in 1839 was again elected president of Peru. In 1841, when the Bolivians overthrew the government of Ballivian and pronounced again in favor of Santa Cruz, Gamarra invaded the neighboring republic at the head of an army, but was defeated and killed in battle at Ingavi.
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