Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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HARKNESS, Albert, educator, born in Mendon (now Blackstown), Massachusetts, 6 October. 1822. He was graduated at Brown in 1842, at the head of his class, and served as master in the Providence high school from 1843 till 1846, when he became senior master, and held this post until 1853. He then travelled extensively in Europe, spending about two years in the universities of Gottingen, Bonn, and Berlin. On his return in 1855 he was appointed professor of the Greek language and literature in Brown, which chair he still (1887) holds. He has received the degrees of Ph.D. from Bonn in 1854 and LL. D. from Brown in 1869. His publications are principally text books, which are extensively used. They include " Arnold's First Latin Book" (New York, 1851); " Second Latin Book " (1853);" First Greek Book and Introductory Greek Reader" (1860; revised ed., 1885): "Latin Grammar" (1864; revised eds., 1874 and 1881); "Latin Reader" (1865); "Introductory Latin Book" (1866): "Latin Composition" (1868); editions of "Caesar" (1870; revised ed., with a treatise on the military system of the Romans, 1886), "Cicero " (1873), and "Sallust" (1878); and "Complete Latin Course for the First Year" (1883).--His son, Albert Granger, born in Providence, Rhode Island, 19 November, 1857, was graduated at Brown in 1879, and studied in Berlin, Leipzig, and Bonn. Since 1883 he has been professor of Latin and German in Madison university, Hamilton, New York
HARKNESS, James, clergyman, born in Roxburghshire, Scotland, 13 March, 1803; died in Jersey City, New Jersey, 4 July, 1878. He was graduated at the University of Edinburgh, was ordained to the ministry in 1832, and became pastor of the Presbyterian church in Ecclefechan, Scotland. He came to the United States in 1839, and held pastorates in New York city, Fishkill, and Rochester, New York In 1862 he was installed over the 3d Presbyterian church in Jersey City, where he remained until his death. He had studied medicine, had taken a medical degree, and practised among his various congregations. He adopted homoeopathy in 1840. He contributed frequently to the magazines of his denomination, and published "Messiah's Throne and Kingdom" (New York, 1855).--His son, William, astronomer, born in Ecclefechan, Scotland, 17 December, 1837, studied at Lafayette college, and was graduated in 1858 at Rochester university, where he also received the degree of LL. D. in 1874. He was graduated in medicine in 1862, was appointed aide at the United States naval observatory in August of that year, and also served as surgeon in the United States army at the second battle of Bull Run, and during the attack on Washington in July, 1864. He was commissioned professor of mathematics in the United States navy, with the relative rank of lieutenant-commander, in August, 1863, and stationed at the naval observatory in Washington, D.C. In 1865-'6, during a cruise on the "Monadnock." he made an extensive series of observations on terrestrial magnetism at the principal ports in South America. His results were published by the Smithsonian institution (Washington, 1872). On his return he was attached to the United States hydrographic office during 1867, and from 1868 till 1874 to the naval observatory. He discovered the 1474 line of the solar corona at Des Moines, Iowa, during the total eclipse of 7 August, 1869. In 1871 he was appointed a member of the United States transit-of-Venus commission, and, after designing most of the instruments to be employed, he went to Hobart Town, Tasmania, as chief of the party that observed the transit there, made a voyage around the world, and returned to Washington in 1875. He was promoted to the relative rank of captain in 1878, was made executive officer of the transit-of-Venus commission, and fitted out all of the expeditions in 1882. The machine used for measuring the astronomical photographs obtained was designed by him, and a duplicate of this machine has recently been made for the Lick observatory in California. Since the return of the transit-of-Venus parties, he has been engaged in reducing and discussing their observations. He also devised the sperometer caliper, which is the most accurate instrument known for measuring the inequalities of the pivots of astronomical instruments. Professor Harkness is a member of various scientific societies, and has prepared a great number of papers and reports.
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