Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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ZUNIGA, Alvaro Manrique de (thoon'-ye-gah), Marquis de Villa-Manrique, seventh viceroy of Mexico, born in Seville. Spain, about 15:30; died in Madrid about 1600. He entered Mexico, 18 October, 1585, and one of his first measures was to send re-enforcements to Acapulco and fortify that city against English corsairs. He also ordered the arming of a fleet to attack their vessels" but the Licenciado Palacios, who was in command, hearing that Sir Francis Drake had sailed for the East Indies, remained in port and allowed a privateer that was lying in wait at Cape San Lucas to capture the galleon "Santa Ana," with a rich cargo of treasure and silk from Manila. Zuniga was well liked, both by Spaniards and Indians, whom he treated humanely, but although, according to Torquemada, he was wise and prudent, his hasty temper led him, in a dispute about jurisdiction with the audiencia of Guadalajara, to resort to force, and, as the audiencia armed also, the colony was on the eve of a civil war. His enemies meanwhile spread calumnies at court, and Philip II. in 1589 ordered his relief by Luis de Velasco, and commanded the bishop of Tlaxcala, Pedro Romano, to investigate Zuniga's government. Romano, who had an old grudge against the viceroy, arrived in Mexico before Velasco, and on 17 January, 1590, relieved Zuniga, going so far, in his enmity toward the latter, as to attach even the clothes of his wife in the seizure of his property. For six years Zuniga continued in Texcoco, the object of Romano's persecution, till in 1596 he sailed for Spain to seek justice, and obtained at last the reversal of the sentence of confiscation, but he died before he could recover his property.
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