Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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HURTADO DE MENDOZA, Andres (oor-tah'-do), marquis of Catiete, viceroy of Peru, born in Canete about 1500; died in Lima, Peru, 30 March, 1561. He had served with distinction in the wars of Germany and Flanders, and was royal chief-huntsman and governor of Cuenca when Charles V. appointed him in 1555 viceroy of Peru. He left Spain in the same year, and, after arranging several difficulties in Panama and subduing a revolution of the fugitive negro slaves, entered Lima, 29 June, 1556. He found the country in a very unsatisfactory situation in consequence of the scarcely subdued revolutions of Sebastian del Castillo, Godinez, and Giron. The audiencia had been ruling for nearly four years, and its judges were in discord and arrogant toward the viceroy, who immediately petitioned the emperor for the recall of the most offensive. The insurgents who had been pardoned were turbulent, and those who had assisted the government against them were clamoring for larger rewards, and the viceroy adopted despotic measures, banishing the latter and cruelly persecuting and executing the greater part of the former. He founded the hospital of San Andres at Lima, and had the mummies of the Incas Huiracocha, Yupanqui, and Huaina Capac transported to the vaults of the hospital, in order to remove them from the fanatical superstition of the Indians at Cuzco. In 1558 he founded the city of Cuenca . . near the site of the former imperial residence of Tomebampa, and in the same year re-established the local jurisdiction of native chiefs. He also induced the Inca Sayri 'Pupae, the last grandson of Huaina Capac, to present himself in Lima, 5 January, 1560, renounce his claims to the throne, and, receiving in baptism the name of Diego, to take the title of Prince of Yucay, with a rich revenue In the same year, in order to get rid of turbulent adventurers, the viceroy sent out several exploring expeditions. Meanwhile continuous complaints of Hurtado's arbitrary and cruel government had reached court, and finally the king deprived him of the government and sent as substitute Lopez de Zuniga, who arrived at Paita in January, 1561, and in his communications purposely treated Hurt, ado with disrespect. This, together with his recall, preyed on the latter's mind, and he fell sick and died a short time before the arrival of his successor in Lima.--His son, Garcia, fourth Marquis of Cafiete. viceroy of Peru, born in Cuenca in 1531; died in Spain about 1610, had served in his youth in the wars of Italy, Flanders, and Germany, and in 1556 crone to Peru in the retinue of his father, who in the following year sent him as governor to Chili, to adjust the dissensions which had broken out after Valdivia's death. After arresting Villagra and Aguirre, the rival leaders, he began at once the campaign against the Araucanians, and was generally fortunate, being greatly assisted by constant re-enforcements from Peru. He founded the cities of Canete and Osorno, rebuilt Concepcion, defeating and taking prisoners the caciques Galvarino and Caupolican, who were executed. He sent an unsuccessful expedition to explore the Strait of Magellan, and led an exploration along the coast as far as Chiloe, which archipelago was visited by some of his lieutenants. He repaired and provisioned the forts of Arauco, Angol, and Tucapel, and his lieutenants founded Mendoza and San Juan on the east of the Andes. After the death of his father, he returned to Spain, where his administration was fully approved. On the death of his elder brother, he inherited the estates and title of Marquis of Canete, and was several times sent by Philip II. on important diplomatic missions. The king appointed him viceroy of Peru in 1588, and he arrived on 28 November, 1589, in Callao, where he despatched a vessel with re-enforcements for Chili, and on 6 January, 1590, entered Lima and took charge of the government. He began at once, by royal order, to gather all available funds and solicit donations for the war in the Netherlands and against England, and before the end of the year sent to Spain over 1,500,000 ducats in money, besides a great quantity of plate and jewelry. It is said that the ladies of Arequipa, scarcely without exception, despoiled themselves of all their jewelry, to contribute to the national cause. In view of the probable invasion of the Pacific by an English fleet, Garcia repaired the fortifications of Callao and fitted out the men-of-war that were stationed there, and when toward the end of 1593 Richard Hawkins with two vessels passed the straits and began his depredations, the viceroy despatched three vessels under command of his brother-in-law, Beltran del Castro, who defeated Hawkins and took him prisoner. In 1592 the viceroy founded the College of San Marcos, and from that year till 1593 sustained continuous litigation against the encroachments of the archbishop. Finally, desiring to enjoy his riches in Europe, he petitioned for recall, and was succeeded in 1596 by the Marquis of Salinas, formerly viceroy of Mexico. Hurtado then sailed for Spain, where he was appointed gentleman of the bedchamber. Pedro de Ona in his "Arauco domado" praises Garcia and Suarez de Figueroa in his life of the viceroy says Ereilla (q. v.)was unjust toward him in his "Araucana," on account of the poet's expulsion from Chili.
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