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SANTA CRUZ, Andres (san'-tah-crooth), Bolivian soldier, born in La Paz in 1792; died in Sainte Nazaire, France, in 1865. He was descended through his mother from the Peruvian incas. Santa Cruz entered the Spanish military service, and obtained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, but after the defeat of General O'Reilly at Pasco, 6 December, 1820, he went over to the patriots with part of his command. Toward the end of 1821 he was sent by General San Martin to aid General Sucre in Ecuador, and took part in the victorious battle of Pichincha, 25 May, 1822, for which he was promoted brigadier. He returned to Peru, where, through his influence, Riwr Agiiero (q. v.) was elected president, 28 February, 1823, and he was appointed commander-in-chief with the rank of major-general. After defeating General Valdez at Zepita on 25 August, he was routed by the united forces of Valdez and Olafieta at De-saguadero on 22 September He was then called by Bolivar to Lima, and made chief of staff of the united army. He was sent in 1825 to Chili on a diplomatic mission by Bolivar, and in 1826 appointed supreme military chief; and after the departure of Bolivar for Colombia on 3 September he took charge of the executive as president of the council of government till the constituent congress elected La Mar (q. v.) president, 16 June, 1827. After Sucre's resignation of the executive of Bolivia, Santa Cruz was elected president, 31 December, 1828, and became, in fact, dictator, but during his administration he accomplished many reforms and enlarged the army. He now tried to realize his cherished idea of a Peru-Bolivian confederation. The civil revolts in Peru facilitated this, as under pretext of protecting the government of Orbegozo, with whom he had concluded a treaty on 24 June, 1835, he entered Peru and won several battles. He convoked congress in 1836, and accepted the title of protector of the confederation, dividing Peru into two parts, under independent administrations. The preponderant influence of the confederation alarmed the republic of Chili, which declared war on Santa Cruz. The first Chilian expedition was unlucky, and was saved only by the treaty of peace of Paucarpata, 17 November, 1837, but the second was more successful, and Santa Cruz, deserted by part of his army, was totally defeated at Yungay, 20 January, 1839. The confederation was dissolved, and Santa Cruz took refuge in Guaya-quil, whence he tried in 1843 to restore his government, but was taken prisoner and banished to Chili. To remove a dangerous political leader, who still had a large following, he was in 1848 sent as rain-ister from Peru to France, and afterward remained in Europe on diplomatic missions. At the time of his death he was accredited again to France.
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