Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GUENUCALQUIN (gwen-noo-kal-keen'), Araucanian cacique, born in the valley of Ilicura, Arauco, in 1599; died there in 1634. From his early youth he participated in the struggle against the Spanish invaders of his country, and was elected cacique of his tribe in 1626. He attacked the Spanish army in the defile of Robleria in 1630, and after a protracted fight routed them with heavy loss. His gallantry and strategic ability caused him to be elected toqui by the united tribes of Arauco in 1631. In 1632 Guenucalquin was advised by his chiefs to surprise the Spanish camp in the night, but he refused, saying that he did not wish to be accused by the enemy of having taken advantage of the darkness. In the battle that took place on the following morning the Indians were gaining the advantage, when the second chief of the Araucanian army, Putapichion, was killed, and in their desire to rescue his body the Indians became confused and put to flight. After this defeat, Guenucalquin collected the scattered forces again, and continued his inroads into Spanish territory till their army invaded Arauco once more, and he was killed in a bloody battle in his native valley.
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