Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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HIGUAIHUE (ee-gwy-way'), Araucanian ca-cique, born in the valley of Motuches about 1576; died in Chillan in September, 1616. He belonged to the tribe of Bio-bio, began in early life to fight the Spanish forces at the head of his people, and on account of his valor and sagacity was elected toqui or commander-in-chief of the confederated tribes in 1603. In August, 1614, he captured the city of Chillan, almost entirely destroying it, and in September of the same year defeated the forces of Alonso de Rivera near Santa Cruz, which city he occupied and demolished. In October and November he defeated the rest of Rivera's forces near Angol and Villa Rica, which cities he also stormed and totally destroyed. He continued the war without interruption, and in a few months had captured and razed all the forts and colonies that the Spaniards had established south of the Bio-bio, but without committing any cruelties against the colonists or the captured soldiers. In February, 1615, he attacked the city of Imperial, which was defended by a strong Spanish force under the command of the lady Ines de Aguilera, and after a desperate defence captured, pillaged, and burned the city. But the Spaniards invaded Arauca again, and in May, General Ramon had nearly defeated another Indian chieftain, Huenecura, in the valley of Santa Cruz, when he was suddenly attacked by Higuaihue and beaten with great loss. In July of the same year he was defeated near Angol by the Spanish forces and carried from the field covered with wounds, but soon recovered, and, gathering the different tribes, began a war of vengeance. He dispersed the Spanish forces under General Ramon in a bloody battle on the banks of the Bio-bio in August, 1616, and retired incautiously toward the south, when suddenly he was attacked near Chillan by the Spaniards. After a long and sanguinary battle Higuaihue was defeated and taken prisoner, and soon executed by the Spaniards. The cacique was of tall and commanding appearance, and gift ed with great strength. Like all the Araucanians, he had become an adept in the management of the horses that had been imported by the Spaniards, and as he liked to fight in armor that he had captured from them, they were accustomed to call him the " Indian knight."
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