Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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BRUCE, Archibald, physician, born in New York in February, 1777; died there, 22 February, 1818. He was graduated at Columbia in 1797. His father, William Bruce, head of the medical department of the British army at New York, on being ordered to the West Indies, specially directed that his son should not be brought up to the medical profession. But from the medical lectures of Nicholas Romayne, the teachings of Dr. Hosack, and attendance on the courses of medical instruction of Columbia, he attained a knowledge of the science. He went to Europe in 1798, received the degree of M. D• from the University of Edinburgh in 1800, and, in a tour of two years in France, Switzerland, and Italy, collected a mineralogical cabinet of great value. He married in London, and in the summer of 1803 returned to New York City and began practice. In 1807 he was appointed professor of material medica and mineralogy in the College of physicians and surgeons, being the first to fill such a chair in the United States. On the reorganization of the College in 1811, he was superseded on account of some disagreement with the management, and after 1812 filled the same chair in Queen's, now Rutgers, College, New Jersey. He projected the "American Mineralogical Journal" in 1810, and edited it until 1814. His chemical analysis "of native magnesia from New Jersey" made known to science the mineral now called after him, "Brucite." He also detected and correctly analyzed the zineite of Sussex County, New Jersey, and published a valuable paper "On the Ores of Titanium occurring within the United States•" Dr. Bruce was one of the original members of the New York historical society, and at the time of his death was a member of many learned societies both in this country and in Europe.
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