Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GUYOT, Arnold, geographer, born in Boudevilliers, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 28 September, 1807; died in Princeton, New Jersey, 8 February, 1884. He was educated at Chaux-de-Fonds, and then at the college of Neuchatel, where he was the classmate of Leo Lesquereux. In 1825 he went to Germany, and resided in Carlsruhe with the parents of Alexander Braun, the botanist, where he met Louis Agassiz. From Carlsruhe he went to Stuttgart, and there studied at the gymnasium, returning to Neuchatel in 1827. He then determined to become a minister, and in 1829 started for Berlin to attend lectures in the university. While pursuing his studies he also attended lectures on philosophy and natural science. His leisure was spent in collecting the shells and plants of the country, and he was introduced by Humboldt to the Berlin botanical garden, where opportunities for examining the flora of the tropics was afforded him. In 1835 he received the degree of Ph. D. from the University of Berlin, and published a thesis on "The Natural Classification of Lakes." He was then a private tutor in Paris for four years, and in the summer of 1838, at Agassiz's request, visited the Swiss glaciers, and communicated the results of his six weeks' investigation to the Geological society of France. The laminated structure of ice in the glaciers was originally pointed out by him in this paper, and his discovery was subsequently confirmed by Agassiz, Forbes, and others. In 1839 he returned to Neuchatel, and became the colleague of Agassiz, as professor of history and physical geography in the college there. The academy in Neuchatel was suspended by the grand revolutionary council of Geneva in 1848, and, being urged by Agassiz, Guyot came to this country in that year, and settled in Cambridge, where he was soon afterward invited to deliver a course of lectures at the Lowell institute. These, translated by Professor Cornelius C. Felton, were published under the title of "Earth and Man" (Boston, 1853), and gained for him a wide reputation. The Massachusetts board of education retained his services as lecturer on geography and methods of instruction to the normal schools and teachers' institutes. He was occupied with this work until his appointment, in 1854, to the chair of physical geography and geology at Princeton, which he retained until his death, being for some time senior professor. He was also for several years lecturer on physical geography in the State normal school in Trenton, New Jersey, and from 1861 till 1866 lecturer in the Prince ton theological seminary on the connection of revealed religion and physical and ethnological science, also giving courses in the Union theological seminary in New York and in Columbia college. At the Smithsonian institution he delivered five lectures in 1853 on the "Harmonies of Nature and History," and in 1862 six lectures on "The Unity of Plan in the System of Life." He founded the museum in Princeton, which has since become one of the best of its kind in the United States. Many of its specimens are from his own collections, or were gathered by his students on the exploring expeditions sent out to the Rocky mountains from Princeton. His scientific work in the United States included the perfection of plans for a national system of meteorological observations. Most of these were conducted under the auspices of the Smithsonian institution, where Joseph Henry early gained for him the virtual management of the meteorological department. In connection with this work he published "Meteorological and Physical Tables" (Washington, 1852; revised ed., 1884). The selection and establishment of numerous meteorological stations in New York and Massachusetts were con-tided to him, and he also made a study of the altitudes of the Appalachian chain. This vacation work extended over thirty-two years, and was completed in 1881. Professor Guyot was a member of many scientific societies, at home and abroad. He was one of the original members of the National academy of sciences. The degree of LB. D. was conferred on him by Union in 1873. Professor Guyot was a delegate, in 1861, from the Presbyterian church in the United States to the convention of the Evangelical alliance held in Geneva, and in 1873 he contributed a valuable paper on "Cosmogony and the Bible" to the meeting held in New York. Between 1866 and 1875 he prepared a series of geographies and a series of wall maps, for which he received a medal of progress at the Vienna exhibition 1873. He was associated with Frederick A. P. Barnard in the editorship of "Johnson's New Universal Cyclopaedia" from 1874 till 1877, and wrote many of the articles on physical geography and similar topics. His papers were usually read at the meetings of the American association for the advancement of science or the National academy of sciences, and then published in the "American Journal of Science." He was the author of valuable biographical memoirs of Carl Ritter (1860); James H. Coffin (1875); and Louis Agassiz (1883); also "A Treatise on Physical Geography" (New York, 1873); and "Creaton, or the Biblical Cosmogony in the Light of Modern Science" (1884). See the memoir by James A. Dana in "Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences" (Washington, 1886).
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