Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GARLAND, Augustus Hill, cabinet officer, born in Tipton County, Tennessee, 11 June, 1882. His parents removed to Arkansas before he was a year old. He was educated at St. Mary's College, Lebanon, Kentucky, and St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky, read law there and in Arkansas, and was admitted to the bar in Washington, Arkansas, in 1853. After practicing in that place for three years, he removed to Little Rock. He was a Whig in polities, and in 1860 was an elector on the Bell and Everett ticket. He was an opponent of the secession ordinance in the State convention, but after its passage he espoused the southern cause, and was a member of the Provisional congress that met in Montgomery, Alabama, in May, 1861. He was chosen a delegate to the 1st Confederate congress, and afterward served in the senate, in which he had a seat when the Confederacy fell. In 1865 he petitioned the United States Supreme Court for the right to practise without taking the "iron-clad" oath, presenting an argument on which the question was decided in his favor in December, 1867. He was elected United States senator for the term beginning on 4 March, 1867, but was not permitted to take his seat. In 1874, after serving a short time as secretary of state, he was elected by a large majority governor of Arkansas under the new state constitution. In January, 1876, he was sent to the United States senate, succeeding Powell Clayton, a Republican, and re-elected in 1883, serving from 5 March, 1877, to 5 March, 1885, when he took his seat in the cabinet, having been appointed by President Cleveland attorney-general of the United States. His successful test-oath case is reported in Wallace's "Supreme Court Reports," vol. iv.
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