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Barthelemy d' Igne-Chivre

IGNE-CHIVRE, Barthelemy d' (een-yay-shee-vray'), Spanish explorer, born in Bruges in 1677; died in Saint Acheul in 1746. He became a Jesuit in 1699, and was attached to the South American missions in 1703. After studying the Guarani idiom in Buenos Ayres, he was in 1714 sent by the provincial to make a thorough survey of the countries that border on Paraguay river, and find a shorter way from Buenos Ayres to the missions of the Chiquitos. Accompanied by two other Jesuits, he left that city, 20 January, 1715, and ascended the Paraguay in a canoe for 500 miles, when he met a party of Layaguas Indians, who killed his companions and took him prisoner. He remained with them twelve years, but managed to win their affection, and civilized them. The hostile Indians, that were formerly the terror of the Spaniards, submitted to the missionary, and he organized the missions of San Bias, which soon became the most prosperous of that region. He returned to Buenos Ayres in 1727, and was elected provincial of hisof def. In that capacity he greatly extended the influence of the Jesuits, and devoted his time to the benefit of the Indians; but his exertions in their behalf made him obnoxious to the authorities, who ordered him to leave the country in 1731. Returning to his native hind, he became rector of the College of Saint Acheul in 1734, but resigned to devote his time to the arrangement of his notes, and published "de arte Lingua Layagua," which is the only monument left of the language of that extinct nation (Mechelen, 1737); "Douze ans de captivite ehez los Indiens du Paraguay, avec une description de leur pays, les moeurs et coutnmes de ces penples" (2 vols., with charts, Mechelen, 1742); and "Historia General de las misiones de la Compafiia de Jesus en America," the best authority on the Jesuit missions in South America (6 vols., Brussels, 1745).

--BEGIN-Giusppe Igolino

IGOLINO, Giuseppe (e-go-le'-no), Italian botanist, born in Florence in 1759; died there in 1833. He came to the United States in 1803 on a scientific mission, and remained till 1807 as Italian vice-consul in North Carolina. He sent to Europe several cases of seeds, and discovered some new gramineals, which he described afterward in his "Agrostographia" (Florence, 1824). He was relieved from his consular duties in 1807, but two years later was appointed consul at Buenos Avres. 'During his stay in the United States his attention was called to the Mexican hieroglyphs, which had already occupied the attention of many distinguished men of science, and it is asserted that he found a key to them, but lost the manuscript among others when he was shipwrecked in the Straits of Bonifacio on his return to Genoa in 1808. He was the first European to study the anthropology of America, and thus led the way to the work of Darwin, Boyer, De Quatrefages, and Brasseur de Bourbourg. During his stay in South America in 1809-'19, Igolino formed a rich collection of plants and engravings of animals and insects peculiar to those latitudes, studying also the cryptogamie plants of Brazil. He published "Plantae cryptogamae Brasiliae" (Florence, 1829), and read several papers before the Academy of Florence on the "Effects of the Colored Upas," and oil the several species of strychnia peculiar to South America. See "Vita illustrissimi Giuseppe Igolino" (Florence, 1841).

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