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MITRE, Bartolome (race'-tray), Argentine statesman, born in Buenos Ayres, 26 June, 1821. About 1836 he was persecuted by the dictator, Juan Manuel de Rosas, on account of some patriotic poems, and emigrated to Montevideo, where as captain he participated in the defence of the city during the first siege of 183S. He took part in conducting the journals "El Comercio," " El Iniciador," and "El National," was chief editor of '" La Nueva Era," and published in those papers his first poetical compositions. During the second siege he served again as lieutenant-colonel; but after the revolution of 1846 he emigrated to Bolivia, where he was made chief of staff of General Adolfo Ballivian, and served in the battles of La-lava and Behistre as commander of the artillery. He defended Ballivian's government in "La Epoca." and was director of the military college; but after Ballivian's downfall in 1847, as Mitre had refused to join the revolution, he was sent over the frontier to Peru, whence he went to Chili. Then he became editor of "El Mereurio," of Valparaiso, in 1849, and was also assistant editor of " El Progreso" in Santiago, but, on account of his opposition to the government, he was banished and went to Peru in 1851. He soon returned to Chili, and, when he heard of the rising in the Argentine Republic against Rosas, he joined the revolutionary forces of the interior provinces under Urquiza, and commanded the artillery in the decisive battle of Monte Caseros, 2 February, 1852. After the flight of Rosas, Mitre was elected deputy to the legislative assembly of Buenos Ayres, where he attacked energetically the vote of the governor, Dr. Lopez, in favor of the presidency of Urquiza, and, notwithstanding the persecution of the authorities, continued his violent opposition in the columns of " I, os Debates" till Dr. Lopez resigned, on 23 June, 18a2. Urquiza now declared himself dictator ; but Buenos Ayres. instigated by Mitre, who had been elected general in command of the militia, refused to sanction his government, and on 11 September declared its independence of the other provinces. Valentin Alsina was elected governor, and appointed Mitre minister of the interior and foreign relations. I[e then founded the journal "las Nacion," of which he is still (1888) the editor, and as commander of the militia continued to prepare for a possible conflict with the rest of the confederation. When this took place, in 1859, he was a-pointed commander-in-chief of the forces of Buenos Ayres, but was defeated by Urquiza at Cepeda on 23 October In consequence Alsina resigned and Buenos Ayres was forced to re-enter the confederacy. Mitre was elected governor, and when in 1861 Urquiza marched against Buenos Ayres, Mitre met and totally defeated him at Pavon on 17 September President Derqui fled, and Mitre was chosen provisional president of the confederation. In the elections of 1862 he was proclaimed constitutional president for the term of six years, and during his administration the public welfare made rapid progress and railroads, telegraphic lines, and public schools were established. The Argentine Republic joined the triple alliance in 1865, and Mitre marched against Paraguay at the head of the Argentine contingent, leaving Vice-President Marcos Paz in charge of the executive. He was commander-in-chief of the allied forces, and served in the Paraguayan war till 1870. On 12 October, 1868, he delivered the executive to the new president, Sarmiento, and after the war he resumed the direction of "La Nation." In 1873 he was appointed minister to Brazil and Paraguay. In 1874 he was again a candidate for the presidency, and, being unsuccessful in the election, headed a revolution, but was defeated at La Verde and Santa Rosa and left, the country. In 1875 he was included in an amnesty and returned to Buenos Ayres, where he continues as editor of " La Nation." A collection of his poems appeared under the title "Rimas y Poesias" (Buenos Ayres, 1879), and he has also written "La vida de Belgrano" (1880) ; " Compro-bacidn hist6rica acerca de algunos puntos de Historia Argentina segun nuevos documentos " (1882) ; and "Iaa vida de San Martin " (1884).
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