Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> Benjamin Harrison





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 



Benjamin Harrison

Signer of the Declaration of Independence

 

HARRISON, Benjamin, signer of the Declaration of Independence, born in Berkeley, Charles City County, Virginia, about 1740; died in April, 1791. The general impression that his family was descended from Harrison the regicide appears to be erroneous. As a member of the burgesses in 1764 he served on the committee that prepared the memorials to the king, lords, and commons; but in 1765, with many other prominent men, opposed the stamp act resolutions of Henry as impolitic. He was chosen in 1773 one of the committee of correspondence which united the colonies against Great Britain in 1774, was appointed one of the delegates to congress, and was four times re-elected to a seat in that body. As a member of all the Virginia conventions to organize resistance, he acted with the party lad by Pendleton in favor of " general united opposition." 

 

On 10 June, 1776, as chairman of the committee of the whole house of congress, he introduced the resolution that had been offered three days before by Richard Henry Lee, declaring the independence of the American colonies, and on 4 July he reported the Declaration of Independence, of which he was one of the signers. On his return from congress he became a member of the Virginia house of delegates under the new constitution, was chosen speaker, and filled that office until 1781, when he was twice elected governor of the commonwealth. As a delegate to the Virginia convention of 1788, he opposed the ratification of the Federal constitution, taking the ground of Patrick Henry, James Monroe, and others, that it was a national and not a Federal government, though when the instrument was adopted he gave it his hearty support. At the time of his death he was a member of the Virginia legislature. In person Benjamin Harrison was large and fleshy; in spite of his suffering from gout, his good humor was unfailing. Although without conspicuous intellectual endowments, he was a man of excellent judgment and the highest sense of honor, with a courage and cheerfulness that never faltered, and a "downright candor" and sincerity of character which conciliated the affection and respect of all who knew him

-- more -- 

 

BENJAMIN HARRISON was born in 1726 on Berkeley, the family plantation beautifully situated on the banks of the James River overlooking the seaport of Petersburg and Richmond. He was a descendant of a family long established in Virginia, his father having married the eldest daughter of the King's surveyor general. Young Harrison was the eldest son of ten children. He was a student in the College of William and Mary when, his father and two of his sisters were all killed in the mansion house, by a lightning strike during a thunderstorm. Harrison left college before graduation and returned home to manage his father's estate. Although he was considered young to be entrusted with such a charge, he displayed unusual good judgment and prudence in his responsibilities.


Harrison's family had long been distinguished as political leaders and he was appointed at an early age to sustain the reputation to which he had been born. He started his political career around 1764 and he continued to hold political offices throughout his lifetime, being elected to a seat whenever his other offices permitted. As a member of the provincial assembly, Harrison soon became outstanding.  He united common good sense with great firmness and the ability to make decisions. Besides being quite wealthy, and having made respectable connections by marriage, he was naturally a political leader and he held the confidence of his constituents. The British, being aware of his influence and respectability, were anxious to have him, and proposed to name him a member of the executive council of Virginia, a position few would have had the firmness to decline.

 

Harrison, although a young man, was not seduced by the rank conferred by office. In opposition to the British, he identified himself with the people, whose rights and liberties he pursued with zeal. As a member of the House of Burgesses in 1764, he served on the committee that prepared the memorials to the King, Lords and commons, but in 1765, he opposed the stamp act resolutions. He was chosen in 1773 as one of the committee of correspondence that united the colonies against Britain. In 1774, he was appointed one of the delegates to the continental congress and was four times re-elected to that seat. 

 

Harrison was witty, jovial and entertaining, having a wry, often black sense of humor that delighted his fellow congressmen. When there was discussion about the possibility of being hanged for signing the Declaration of Independence, the heavyweight Harrison was reported to have uttered to Elbridge Gerry, a very thin man, "I shall have all the advantage over you. It will be all over in a minute for me, but you will be kicking in the air half an hour after I am gone." Harrison loved his family and his several large plantations and was an intimate friend of George Washington. He married Elizabeth Bassett and they had seven children who survived infancy. Of his children, his third son, William Henry Harrison, would become the ninth President of the United States. His great grandson, Benjamin Harrison, would become our twenty-third President. 

 

During nearly every session of congress, Harrison represented his state of Virginia, distinguishing himself in many important positions. He was chairman of the board of war and held that office until he left congress in 1777. He was also often called to preside as chairman of the committee of the whole house, in which post he was extremely popular. He occupied that chair during the deliberations on the dispatches of General Washington, the settlement of commercial restrictions against Britain, the state of the colonies, the regulation of trade and during the momentous question on the debates for the declaration of independence. 

 

Towards the end of 1777, Harrison resigned his seat in congress and returned to Virginia. He was once again elected to his state legislature. In 1782, he was elected to the office of chief magistrate of Virginia and became one of the state's most popular governors. He was twice re-elected governor and in 1785, having become ineligible by the provisions of his state's constitution, he returned to private life, carrying with him the esteem of his fellow citizens.

 

In 1788, when the new constitution of the United States was submitted to Virginia, he was elected a member of the state convention. Owing to his advanced years, and to increasing attacks of gout, he did not take a very active part in the debates of the convention. He was generally in favor of the constitution, provided certain amendments could be made to it, but voted against its unconditional ratification.


In the spring of 1791, Harrison was again severely attacked by gout, and he partially recovered. In the month of April, he was again elected a member of his state legislature. On the evening of the day after his election, following a festive party in celebration of his election, he was again stricken with gout and died at Berkeley on April 24, 1791.





Source: Centennial Book of Signers

For a High-resolution version of the original Declaration

  For a High-resolution version of the Stone engraving

 We invite you to read a transcription of the complete text of the Declaration as presented by the National Archives.

&

 

The article "The Declaration of Independence: A History," which provides a detailed account of the Declaration, from its drafting through its preservation today at the National Archives.  

   

Virtualology  welcomes the addition of web pages with historical documents and/or scholarly papers on this subject.  To submit a web link to this page CLICK HERE.  Please be sure to include the above name, your name, address, and any information you deem appropriate with your submission.

 

 

 

William Henry Harrison

9th President of The United States

 

 

William Henry Harrison, ninth president of the United States, born in Berkeley, Charles City County, Virginia, 9 February, 1773; died in Washington, D. C., 4 April, 1841, was educated at Hampden Sidney college, Virginia, and began the study of medicine, but before he had finished it accounts of the Indian outrages that had been committed on the western frontier raised in him a desire to enter the army for its defense. Robert Norris, who had been appointed his guardian on the death of his father in 1791, endeavored to dissuade him, but his purpose was approved by Washington, who had been his father's friend, and he was commissioned ensign in the 1st infantry on 16 August, 1791. He joined his regiment at Fort Washington, Ohio, was appointed lieutenant of the 1st sub-legion, to rank from June, 1792, and afterward joined the new army under General Anthony Wayne. He was made aide-de-camp to the commanding officer, took part, in December, 1793, in the expedition that erected Fort Recovery on the battlefield where St. Clair had been defeated two years before, and, with others, was thanked by name in general orders for his services. 

He participated in the engagements with the Indians that began on 30 June, 1794, and on 19 August, at a council of war, submitted a plan of march, which was adopted and led to the victory on the Miami on the following day. Lieutenant Harrison was specially complimented by General Wayne, in his dispatch to the secretary of war, for gallantry in this fight, and in May, 1797, was made captain, and given command of Fort Washington. Here he was entrusted with the duty of receiving and forwarding troops, arms, and provisions to the forts in the northwest that had been evacuated by the British in obedience to the Jay treaty of 1794, and was also instructed to report to the commanding general on all movements in the south, and to prevent the passage of French agents with military stores intended for an invasion of Louisiana. While in command of this fort he formed an attachment for Anna, daughter of John Cleves Symmes. Her father refused his consent to the match, but the young couple were married in his house during his temporary absence, and Symmes soon became reconciled to his son-in-law. Peace having been made with the Indians, Captain Harrison resigned his commission on 1 June, 1798, and was immediately appointed by President John Adams secretary of the northwest territory, under General Arthur St. Clair as governor, but in October, 1799, resigned to take his seat as territorial delegate in congress. 

In his one year of service, though he was opposed by speculators, he secured the subdivision of the public lands into small tracts, and the passage of other measures for the welfare of the settlers. During the session, part of the northwest territory was formed into the territory of Indiana, including the present states of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and Harrison was made its governor and superintendent of Indian affairs. Resigning his seat in congress, he entered on the duties of his office, which included the confirmation of land grants, the defining of townships, and others that were equally important. Governor Harrison was reappointed successively by President Jefferson and President Madison. He organized the legislature at Vincennes in 1805, and applied himself especially to improving the condition of the Indians, trying to prevent the sale of intoxicating liquors among them, and to introduce inoculation for the small-pox. He frequently held councils with them, and, although his life was sometimes endangered, succeeded by his calmness and courage in averting many outbreaks. On 30 September, 1809, he concluded a treaty with several tribes by which they sold to the United States about 3,000,000 acres of land on Wabash and White rivers. This, and the former treaties of cession that had been made, were condemned by Tecumseh (q. v.) and other chiefs on the ground that the consent of all the tribes was necessary to a legal sale. The discontent was increased by the action of speculators in ejecting Indians from the lands, by agents of the British government, and by the preaching of Tecumseh's brother, the "prophet" (see ELLSKWATAWA), and it was evident that an outbreak was at hand. 

The governor pursued a conciliatory course, gave to needy Indians provisions from the public stores, and in July, 1810, invited Tecumseh and his brother, the prophet, to a council at Vincennes, requesting them to bring with them not more than thirty men. In response, the chief, accompanied by 400 fully armed warriors, arrived at Vincennes on 12 August The council, which was held under the trees in front of the governor's house, was nearly terminated by bloodshed on the first day, but Harrison, who foresaw the importance of conciliating Tecumseh, prevented, by his coolness, a conflict that almost had been precipitated by the latter. The discussion was resumed on the next day, but with no result, the Indians insisting on the return of all the lands that had recently been acquired by treaty. On the day after the council Harrison visited Tecumseh at his camp, accompanied only by an interpreter, but without success. In the following spring depredations by the savages were frequent, and the governor sent word to Tecumseh that, unless they should cease, the Indians would be punished. The chief promised another interview, and appeared at Vincennes on 27 July, 1811, with 300 followers, but, awed probably by the presence of 750 militia, professed to be friendly. Soon afterward, Harrison, convinced of the chief's insincerity, but not approving the plan of the government to seize him as a hostage, proposed, instead, the establishment of a military post near Tippecanoe, a town that had been established by the prophet on the upper Wabash.

The news that the government had given assent to this scheme was received with joy, and volunteers flocked to Vincennes. Harrison marched from that town on 26 September, with about 900 men, including 350 regular infantry, completed Fort Harrison, near the site of Terre Haute, Indiana, on 28 October, and, leaving a garrison there, pressed forward toward Tippecanoe. On 6 November, when the army had reached a point a mile and a half distant from the town, it was met by messengers demanding a parley. A council was proposed for the next day, and Harrison at once went into camp. taking, however, every precaution against a surprise. At four o'clock on the following morning a fierce attack was made on the camp by the savages, and the fighting continued till daylight, when the Indians were driven from the field by a cavalry charge. During the battle, in which the American loss was 108 killed and wounded, the governor directed the movements of the troops, he was highly complimented by President Madison in his message of 18 Dec., 1811, and was also thanked by the legislatures of Kentucky and Indiana.

On 18 June, 1812, war was declared between Great Britain and the United States. On 25 August, Governor Harrison, although not a citizen of Kentucky, was commissioned major-general of the militia of that state, and given command of a detachment that was sent to re-enforce General Hull, the news of whose surrender had not yet reached Kentucky. On 2 September, while on the march, he received a brigadier-general's commission in the regular army, but withheld his acceptance till he could learn whether or not he was to be subordinate to General James Winchester, who had been appointed to the command of the northwestern army. After relieving Fort Wayne, which had been invested by the Indians, he turned over his force to General Winchester, and was returning to his home in Indiana when he met an express with a letter from the secretary of war, appointing him to the chief command in the northwest. "You will exercise," said the letter, "your own discretion, and act in all cases according to your own judgment."

No latitude as great as this had been given to any commander since Washington. Harrison now prepared to concentrate his force on the rapids of the Maumee, and thence to move on Malden and Detroit. Various difficulties, however, prevented him from carrying out his design immediately. Forts were erected and supplies forwarded, but, with the exception of a few minor engagements with Indians, the remainder of the year was occupied merely in preparation for the coming campaign. Winchester had been ordered by Harrison to advance to the Rapids, but the order was countermanded on receipt of information that Tecumseh, with a large force, was at the head-waters of the Wabash. Through a misunderstanding, however, Winchester continued, and on 18 January captured Frenchtown (now Monroe, Michigan), but three days later met with a bloody repulse on the river Raisin from Colonel Henry Proctor. Harrison hastened to his aid, but was too late. After establishing a fortified camp, which he named Fort Meigs, after the governor of Ohio, the commander visited Cincinnati to obtain supplies, and while there urged the construction of a fleet on Lake Erie.

On 2 March, 1813, he was given a major-general's commission. Shortly afterward, having heard that the British were preparing to attack Fort Meigs, he hastened thither, arriving on 12 April. On 28 April it was ascertained that the enemy under Proctor was advancing in force, and on 1 May siege was laid to the fort. While a heavy fire was kept up on both sides for five days, re-enforcements under General Green Clay were hurried forward and came to the relief of the Americans in two bodies, one on each side of Maumee river. Those on the opposite side from the fort put the enemy to flight, but, disregarding Harrison's signals, allowed themselves to be drawn into the woods, and were finally dispersed or captured. The other detachment fought their way to the fort, and at the same time the garrison made a sortie and spiked the enemy's guns. Three days later Proctor raised the siege. He renewed his attack in July with 5,000 men, but after a few days again withdrew.

On 10 September Commander Perry gained his victory on Lake Erie, and on 16 September Harrison embarked his artillery and supplies for a descent on Canada. The troops followed between the 20th and 24th, and on the 27th the army landed on the enemy's territory. Proctor burned the fort and navy yard at Malden and retreated, and Harrison followed on the next day. Proctor was overtaken on 5 October, and took position with his left flanked by the Thames, and a swamp covering his right, which was still further protected by Tecumseh and his Indians. He had made the mistake of forming his men in open order, which was the plan that was adopted in Indian fighting, and Harrison, taking advantage of the error, ordered Colonel Richard M. Johnson to lead a cavalry charge, which broke through the British lines, and virtually ended the battle. Within five minutes almost the entire British force was captured, and Proctor escaped only by abandoning his carriage and taking to the woods. Another band of cavalry charged the Indians, who lost their leader, Tecumseh, in the beginning of the fight, and afterward made no great resistance. This battle, which, if mere numbers alone be considered, was insignificant, was most important in its results. Together with Perry's victory it gave the United States possession of the chain of lakes above Erie, and put an end to the war in uppermost Canada. Harrison's praises were sung in the president's message, in congress, and in the legislatures of the different states.

Celebrations in honor of his victory were held in the principal cities of the Union, and he was one of the heroes of the hour. He now sent his troops to Niagara, and proceeded to Washington, where he was ordered by the president to Cincinnati to devise means of protection for the Indiana border. General John Armstrong, who was at this time secretary of war, in planning the campaign of 1814 assigned Harrison to the 8th military district, including only western states, where he could see no active service, and on 25 April issued an order to Major Holmes, one of Harrison's subordinates, without consulting the latter. Harrison thereupon tendered his resignation, which, President Madison being absent, was accepted by Armstrong. This terminated Harrison's military career.

In 1814, and again in 1815 he was appointed on commissions that concluded satisfactory Indian treaties, and in 1816 he was chosen to congress to fill a vacancy, serving till 1819. While he was in congress he was charged by a dissatisfied contractor with misuse of the public money while in command of the northwestern army, but was completely exonerated by an investigating committee of the house. At this time his opponents succeeded, by a vote of 13 to 11 in the senate, in striking his name from a resolution that had already passed the house, directing gold medals to be struck in honor of Governor Shelby, of Kentucky, and himself, for the victory of the Thames. The resolution was passed unanimously two years later, on 24 March, 1818, and Harrison received the medal. Among the charges that were made against him was that he would not have pursued Proctor at all, after the latter's abandonment of Malden, had it not been for Governor Shelby; but the latter denied this in a letter that was read before the senate, and gave General Harrison the highest praise for his promptitude and vigilance.

While in congress, Harrison drew up and advocated a general militia bill, which was not successful, and also proposed a measure for the relief of soldiers, which was passed. In 1819 General Harrison was chosen to the senate of Ohio, and in 1822 was a candidate for congress, but was defeated on account of his vote against the admission of Missouri to the Union with the restriction that slavery was to be prohibited there. In 1824 he was a presidential elector, voting for Henry Clay, and in the same year he was sent to the United States senate, where he succeeded Andrew Jackson as chairman of the committee on military affairs, introduced a bill to prevent desertions, and exerted himself to obtain pensions for old soldiers. He resigned in 1828, having been appointed by President John Quincy Adams United States minister to the United States of Colombia. While there he wrote a letter to General Simon Bolivar urging him not to accept dictatorial powers. He was recalled at the outset of Jackson's administration, as is asserted by some, at the demand of General Bolivar, and retired to his farm at North Bend, near Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived quietly, filling the offices of clerk of the county court and president of the county agricultural society.

In 1835 General Harrison was nominated for the presidency by meetings in Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, and other states; but the opposition to Van Buren was not united on him, and he received only 73 electoral votes to the former's 170. Four years later the National Whig convention, which was called at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for 4 December, 1839, to decide between the claims of several rival candidates, nominated him for the same office, with John Tyler, of Virginia, for vice president. The Democrats renominated President Van Buren. The canvass that followed has been often called the "log cabin and hard cider campaign."

The eastern end of General Harrison's house at North Bend consisted of a log cabin that had been built by one of the first settlers of Ohio, but which had long since been covered with clapboards. The republican simplicity of his home was extolled by his admirers, and a political biography of that time says that "his table, instead of being covered with exciting wines, is well supplied with the best cider." Log cabins and hard cider, then, became the party emblems, and both were features of all the political demonstrations of the canvass, which witnessed the introduction of the enormous mass-meetings and processions that have since been common just before presidential elections. The result of the contest was the choice of Harrison, who received 234 electoral votes to Van Buren's 60.

 He was inaugurated at Washington on 4 March, 1841, and immediately sent to the senate his nominations for cabinet officers, which were confirmed. They were Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, secretary of state; Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, secretary of the treasury; John Bell, of Tennessee, secretary of war; George E. Badger, of North Carolina, secretary of the navy; Francis Granger, of New York, postmaster-general; and John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, attorney-general. The senate adjourned on 15 March, and two days afterward the president called congress together in extra session to consider financial measures. On 27 March, after several days of indisposition, he was prostrated by a chill, which was followed by bilious pneumonia, and on Sunday morning, 4 April, he died.

The end came so suddenly that his wife, who had remained at North Bend on account of illness, was unable to be present at his death-bed. The event was a shock to the country, the more so that a chief magistrate had never before died in office, and especially to the Whig party, who had formed high hopes of his administration. His body was interred in the congressional cemetery at Washington; but a few years later, at the request of his family, it was removed to North Bend, where it was placed in a tomb, overlooking the Ohio river. This was subsequently allowed to fall into neglect, but afterward General Harrison's son, John Scott, deeded it and the surrounding land to the state of Ohio, on condition that it should be kept in repair. In 1887 the legislature of the state voted to raise money by taxation for the purpose of erecting a monument to General Harrison's memory.

He was the author of a "Discourse on the Aborigines of the Valley of the Ohio" (Cincinnati, 1838). His life has been written by Noses Dawson (Cincinnati, 1834); by James Hall (Philadelphia, 1836); by Richard Hildreth (1839); by Samuel J. Burr (New York, 1840)" by Isaac R. Jackson; and by H. Montgomery (New York, 1853).

--His wife, Anna, born near Norristown, New Jersey, 25 July, 1775; died near North Bend, Ohio, 25 February, 1864, was a daughter of John Cleves Symmes, and married General Harrison 22 November, 1795. After her husband's death she lived at North Bend till 1855, when she went to the house of her son, John Scott Harrison, a few miles distant. Her funeral sermon was preached by Horace Bushnell, and her body lies by the side of her husband at North Bend.

--Their son, John Scott, born in Vincennes, Indiana, 4 October, 1804; died near North Bend, Ohio, 26 May, 1878, received a liberal education, and was elected to congress as a Whig, serving from 5 December, 1853, till 3 March, 1857.--A daughter, Lucy, born in Richmond, Virginia; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, 7 April, 1826, became the wife of David K. Este, of the latter city, and was noted for her piety and benevolence.

--Benjamin, son of John Scott, senator, born in North Bend, Ohio, 20 August, 1833, was graduated at Miami university, Ohio, in 1852, studied law in Cincinnati, and in 1854 removed to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he has since resided. He was elected reporter of the state supreme court in 1860, and in 1862 entered the army as a 2d lieutenant of Indiana volunteers. After a short service he organized a company of the 70th Indiana regiment, was commissioned colonel on the completion of the regiment, and served through the war, receiving the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers on 23 January 1865. He then returned to Indianapolis, and resumed his office of supreme court reporter, to which he had been re-elected during his absence in 1864. In 1876 he was the Republican candidate for governor of Indiana, but was defeated by a small plurality. President Hayes appointed him on the Mississippi river commission in 1878, and in 1880 he was elected United States senator, taking his seat on 4 March, 1881.

 

Courtesy of: National Archives and Records Administration

 President William Henry Harrison message nominating his cabinet, including Daniel Webster as Secretary of State, Thomas Ewing as Secretary of the Treasury, John Bell as Secretary of War, George E. Badger as Secretary of the Navy, John J. Crittenden as Attorney General, and Francis Granger as Post Master General.  Page 1 and Page 2.

 

Presidential Libraries

 

Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center

McKinley Memorial Library

Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum - has research collections containing papers of Herbert Hoover and other 20th century leaders.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum - Repository of the records of President Franklin Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor Roosevelt, managed by the National Archives and Records Administration.

Harry S. Truman Library & Museum

Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library - preserves and makes available for research the papers, audiovisual materials, and memorabilia of Dwight and Mamie D. Eisenhower

John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library

Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum

Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace Foundation

Gerald R. Ford Library and Museum

Jimmy Carter Library

Ronald Reagan Presidential Library - 40th President: 1981-1989.

George Bush Presidential Library

        

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on Benjamin Harrison.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum