Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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CALFQUIN (cal-af-keen'), Araucanian soldier, cacique of Trapan, Chili, born about 1540; died in 1602. He succeeded Colcur in the command of the Arau-canian armies in 1599, being then somewhat advanced in years and having a long experience in warfare. Early in 1599 he had several encounters with the Spanish general, Viscarra, and kept him at bay until, in July, General Quinones routed the Indians in a long and bloody battle on the plains of Yumpel. Calafquin introduced in his army the military training and tactics that he had learned from the Spaniards, organized his cavalry with horses taken from the enemy in many encounters, and was the first Indian chief that taught his troops to use European arms. On 14 November, 1599, he arrived before the City of Valdivia at the head of more than 4,000 Indians, among them sixty armed with arquebuses and 200 protected with cuirasses, also taken from the Spaniards. He defeated the defenders of the place, entered the City, slaughtered most of the men, carried away all the women, and ransacked the buildings and burned them. In the two following years he frequently defeated the Spaniards, and in 1601 routed General Alonso de Rivera near Concepeidn, and attacked the City, which was entirely destroyed by the Indians. Many of the Spanish settlements south of the Biobio River were also destroyed by Calafquin's troops in 1602.
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