Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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ITAUMA, Candido Borges Monteiro (e-tah-oo'-mah), Viscount of, Brazilian physician and politician, born in Rio Janeiro, 12 October, 1812; died there, 25 August, 1872. He was graduated as surgeon in the academy of Rio Janeiro in 1833, and began practice, but at the same time studied medicine, and was graduated in 1834. He then became connected with the medical department of the academy, filling various chairs till 1858, and during this time was the first to introduce modern instruments in surgery. He was physician to the imperial family, and in 1849 became mayor of Rio Janeiro. Soon afterward he was appointed commissioner of emigration, and on 27 August, 1858, president of the province of Sao Paulo. The emperor created him baron of Itauma and senator of the empire. In 1869 he went to Europe with the intention of studying improvements in medical science, but on his return was invited by Don Pedro II. to be his companion in his journey through Europe. On its termination in 1872, Dr. Itauma accepted the portfolio of agriculture and commerce, and in that year he was made a viscount. As minister of commerce he protected the emigration of Europeans, introduced many useful inventions, and supervised the construction of many miles of telegraph and railroad. He was engaged on this enterprise when he died, so poor that the government had to make an appropriation for the support of his family. Dr. Itauma was a member of many scientific societies.
--BEGIN-Agustin de Iturbide
ITURBIDE, or YTURBIDE, Agustin de (e-tur-be'-deh), emperor of Mexico, born in Valladolid (now Morelia), 27 September, 1783; died in Padilla, 19 July, 1824. His father came from Navarre shortly before his birth, and settled in New Spain. The son studied at the seminary of his native town till the death of his father in 1798, when he entered the provincial infantry as sub-lieutenant, and in 1805 went with it to garrison Jalapa, and married Ana Maria Huarte, of Valladolid. On his return in 1809 he aided in suppressing a revolutionary movement, and, when in 1810 Hidalgo was planning with Allende the revolution for Mexican independence, he declined to join them, and took the field for the Spanish cause, joining with his force Toreuato Trujillo, to dispute the entry of the insurgent army to the capital at Monte de las Cruces. Iturbide was in the battle of 30 October, and, being promoted captalion of Tula, was sent to the army of the south under Garcia Rio. Impaired health compelled him to go to the capital on leave of absence, and he thus escaped the fate of his commander, who was surprised and killed by the insurgents. After a visit to his native town he was sent to Guanajuato as second in command of Garcia Conde, and took part in the suppression of the rebellion, capturing one of the principal leaders in that province, Albino Garcia. He was then appointed colonel of the regiment of Celaya, with headquarters at Irapuato, organized the defence of San Miguel, Chamacuero, and San Juan de la Vega, and defeated the forces of the revolutionary chiefs, Rafael Rayon, Tovar, and Father Torres. In 1813 he was ordered with Llano to cover Valladolid, which was threatened by the forces of Jose Maria Morelos, and he repulsed the forces of Morelos on 22 December and the following days, and completely routed them at Puruaran on 15 January, 1814. He was repulsed before Coporo by Ignacio Rayon in 1815, and in 1816 was appointed commander-in-chief of Guanajuato and Michoacan; but his cruelties and violent measures became so notorious that several citizens complained. He was indicted, and, although absolved of the gravest charges, was dismissed, as the Spanish government suspected the Mexican officers. He retired to private life, maturing plans of vengeance, especially as he knew, better than any one else, the state of public opinion, and foresaw the final overthrow of the Spaniards On the proclamation of the constitution in the peninsula, 1820, Iturbide obtained from the viceroy, Ruiz de Apodaca, command of the army of the south. On 16 November he left Mexico at the head of his old regiment and a total force of about 2,500 men, and, making his headquarters at Teloloapam, began to win over the officers of his command to his plan. He feigned encounters with the revolutionist leader Guerrero, with whom, in reality, he was in secret communication, and who offered to assist him and submit to his orders. Iturbide reported to the viceroy that he had nearly repressed the revolution, by this means obtaining re-enforcements, and on 22 December marched from Teloloapam, and, after a final interview with Guerrero in Acatempan, 10 January, 1821, surprised and captured at Barrabas a convoy of $525,000 in silver bars, which the merchants of Vera Cruz, believing that the revolution was suppressed, had sent to Acapulco. He now proclaimed in the little town of Iguala, 24 February, 1821, his plan of independence, which is known as the "plan de Iguala," or "plan de las tres garantias," which provided for the protection of religion, the union of Spaniards and Mexicans, and independence under the separate government of Ferdinand VII., or a prince of the reigning dynasty. The viceroy sent a force against him under General Pascual Linan, but public opinion was overwhelmingly in favor of independence, and everywhere the military chiefs pronounced for Iturbide. His forces increased daily, and in the middle of April numbered over 6,000 men. Meanwhile the viceroy had been deposed and succeeded provisionally by General Novella, who hastily erected fortifications for protecting the capital, but he was gradually abandoned by his supporters, and when, in July, the new viceroy, O'Donoju, arrived in Vera Cruz, he resolved to treat with Iturbide. They had an interview at Cordova, where, on 24 August, they concluded a treaty, by which the viceroy recognized the independence of Mexico under the reign of Ferdinand VII., or one of the princes, and in case of their refusal the Mexicans were to choose an emperor for themselves. After being triumphantly received at Puebla, Iturbide entered the capital, 27 September, 1821, at the head of an army of 16,000 men. A junta was installed with O'Donoju as a member, and the next day the declaration of independence was signed and proclaimed. By decree of the junta of 11 October a regency of five members, instead of the original three, was formed, with Iturbide as president, and he was at the same time appointed commander-in-chief, with the title of "serene highness," and an annual salary of $120,000. The Spanish residents that desired to leave the country were permitted to do so without molestation, and this and other liberal measures of the new government contributed to establish peace. The few remaining Spanish garrisons, with the exception of Vera Cruz, became disheartened and surrendered, and the provinces of Yucatan and Chiapas and the Guatemala canton of Soconusco declared their independence, but were afterward united with the Mexican empire Soon dissensions broke out in the junta, under whose interference Iturbide was chafing, the unpaid troops were discontented, and public opinion was divided between monarchical and republican ideas. Hoping for immediate relief, Iturbide hastened the convocation of the 1st congress, which met, 24 February, 1822, but it obstinately refused to grant him money for the troops. Thus driven to extremes, with 16,000 men at his disposal, and aided by the public commotion that was caused by the arrival of the news that the treaty of Cordova had been declared void in Spain, he allowed his partisans to proclaim him emperor on the night of 18 May. This movement was generally sustained by the troops, and, notwithstanding its resistance, congress finally sanctioned his election on 21 May, and received his oath of office, and on 21 July he was solemnly crowned amid pompous ceremonies in the cathedral under the name of Agustin I. Soon opposition began to appear everywhere, and when, on 26 August, he imprisoned fifteen deputies to congress, who were suspected of participation in a conspiracy that had been organized in Valladolid, he fell into disagreement with that body, and on 31 October dissolved it arbitrarily. The "junta instituyente," which succeeded the congress on 2 November, was unable to establish order, and defection became general among the army officers. Santa Anna, who had been ordered to Mexico, proclaimed the republic in Vera Cruz on 2 December, Guerrero went to the south to raise an insurrection, and General Echavarri, who had been ordered against Santa Anna, joined him, signing on 1 February, 1823, the "plan de Casa Mata." Driven to despair, Iturbide hastily reassembled the congress that had been dissolved by him four months before, and on 7 March presented his abdication, which was ignored by that body. It declared his election void from the beginning, and decreed that he should immediately leave the country and reside in Italy with a pension of $25,000 yearly. He was meanwhile under the custody of General Bravo, and on 11 May he sailed in the English ship "Rawlins" for Leghorn, where he arrived on 2 August But the grand-duke did not desire to see him reside there, and he went thence to London in the beginning of 1824 His Mexican partisans, meanwhile, represented that the country desired his return, and, impelled by a wish to recover his crown, he sailed on 4 May, accompanied by his wife, his nephew, the Polish colonel Benseki, and three priests, for Mexico, and, after looking vainly for some of his partisans in the Bay of San Bernardo, anchored on 14 July in the small port of Soto la Marina, unaware that the government, meanwhile, had declared him a traitor and an outlaw should he set foot again on Mexican territory. After Benseki had obtained permission from the military commander, Felipe de la Garza, for his "party of colonists" to land, Iturbide went on shore, but was immediately recognized, notwithstanding his disguise, and arrested. Garza conducted him to the prison of the town, and advised him to prepare to die. He sent for his chaplain, but the commander, meanwhile, resolved to present him to the provincial congress of Tamaulipas, which was then in session in the neighboring town of Padilla. He arrived there on 19 July, that body condemned him to immediate execution, and he was shot on the evening of the same day in the square of Padilla, after assuring the multitude that he was not a traitor to his country, and exhorting them to obey the constitutional government, he was buried in the small cemetery there, but under the administration of General Bustamante in 1838 congress ordered his remains to be transported to the city of Mexico, and on 25 September of that year, after solemn ceremonies, they were placed in the chapel of San Pelipe de Jesus, in the cathedral, in a marble sarcophagus. After his execution congress decreed that his family should reside in Colombia, giving them a yearly pension of 88,000; but, there being no ship for that country, his wife was permitted to go to the United States. She lived for many years in Philadelphia, and then went to Bayonne, France.--The emperor's elder son, Angel, died in the city of Mexico, 18 July, 1872, leaving a son, Agustin, born in Washington, D. C., in 1863, who was adopted by Maximilian as heir to the throne, and after the death of his father returned to the United States.--The emperor's younger son died in Paris, France, in May, 1873.
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