Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MARTIUS, Charles Frederic Philip de (mar-teens'), German botanist, born in Erlangen, 17 April, 1794 ; died in Munich, 13 December, 1869. He was graduated at Munich in 1816 as a surgeon, appointed in the following year physician of the expedition that was sent by the Bavarian and Austrian governments to Brazil, and specially charged with the ethnographical and botanical work. The expedition achieved few satisfactory results, and but for Martins would scarcely be remembered The latter studied the natural history of the country thoroughly, and collecting notes and documents that enabled him on his return to Europe to publish " Reise naeh Brasilien" (3 vols., Munich, 1824-'32) and "' Nova genera et species plantarum Brasiliarum," the most complete work of its kind according to Alexander yon Humboldt (3 vols., 1824-'32). Martius was a member of many learned societies, and at his death was professor of botany in the University of Munich. He also wrote " Genera et species plantarum Palmarum" (3 vols., 1828-'45); " Die Pflanzen und Thiere des tropischen Amerika" (1831) ; "Systema materiae medicae vegetabilis Brasiliensis" (Leipsic, 1843); and "Flora Brasiliensis," on which the author labored twenty years, and which was printed at the expense of the Bavarian government (10 vols., Stuttgart, 1840-'57). Martins wrote also several less important works on Brazil.
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