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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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Charles Le Moyne

LE MOYNE, Charles, Sieur de Longueuil, born in Dieppe, France, in 1626, died in Villemarie, Canada, in 1683. In 1641 he sailed for Canada, where, after spending four years among the Hurons and becoming familiar with their language, he settled at Villemarie and served as interpreter to the colony. In 1648 the Iroquois advanced toward the fort under pretence of parleying, but with the real object of surprising it. Le Moyne, who divined their purpose, rushed among them, seized two Indians, and forced them to march as prisoners into the fort. A similar act of bravery on his part some weeks later produced such effect on the savages that for some time they did not venture to appear in the neighborhood, he resumed the cultivation of his lands; but the Iroquois renewed their attacks on the colonists in May, 1651, and, collecting some of his men, Le Moyne routed them with great slaughter. In consequence of this aclion he was appointed garde Inagazin, and in 1653 he negotiated a peace with the Iroquois. In 1655 this tribe again attacked the colony, which was saved, owing chiefly to the efforts of Le Moyne. He was captured by these Indians the same year while he was hunting, after displaying great "bravery. The savages were about to burn him, but his demeanor at the stake impressed them so much that they released him, and at the end of three months set him at liberty. Francois de Lauzon, to whom sixty leagues of territory had been granted by the royal government, counted Le Moyne among his earliest vassals, and in 1657 conferred on him the amplest seigniorial rights. To his former possessions was added in 1664 the island of St. Helene, Round island, and other properties. He took part in the expeditions of Traev and Courcelles in 1666-'7, and in 1668 Louis XIV., in recognition of his services, ennobled him, conferring on him the title of Sieur de Longueuil, to which was added the title of Chateauguay on his acquiring that fief. He afterward took part in several expeditions against the Iroquois, his knowledge of the Indian dialects rendering his services of great value to successive governors. He was for a long time captain of Montreal. and was recommended by De La Barre to the French government for appointment as governor of that place. He had eleven sons, of whom two (see BIENVILLE and IBERVILLE) are noticed elsewhere.--His son, Charles, first Baron de Longueuil. born in Villemarie, 10 December, 1656; died there, 8 June, 1729, was surnamed the "Maceabeus of Montreal" on account of his valor. Reserved in the Frencharmy in Flanders, was made a lieutenant, and, on returning to Canada in 1683, was made mayor of Montreal, and engaged in colonizing his estates, building churches and a stone fort at Longueuil. He commanded a division of the Canadian militia in the campaign against the Iroquois in 1687, and went with a body of Huron and Abenaki Indians to watch the movements of the English fleet before Quebec in 1690. The same year he was wounded in an action against the British under Sir William Phips and was made governor of Montreal, and baron in 1700, on account of his services to the colony. His dexterity in negotiating with the Onondaga Indians in 1711 saved the French colony from great dangers, and he commanded the Canadian troops at Chambly in the unsuccessful attempt by the English to surprise Montreal. He became commandant-general of the colony in 1711, was governor of Three Rivers in 1720, and of Montreal again from 1724 till 2 September, 1726. He administered the colony for some months in 1725, but his request to be appointed governor of Canada was refused on the groundthat he was a native of that province. He was made a chevalier of St. Louis, and persuaded the Iroquois in 1726 to rebuild Fort Niagara, notwithstanding the opposition of Governor William Burner, of New York.--His son, Charles, second Baron de Longueuil, born in Canada, 18 October, 1687; died there, 17 January, 1755, entered the army, and was made captain in 1719. He succeeded his father in the barony in 1729, was named major of Montreal in 1733, and received the cross of St. Louis in 1734. He was appointed governor of Montreal in 1749. On the death of the governor-general, De la Jonquiere, in 1752, he administered the government of the colony until the arrival of the Marquis de Menneville in August of the same year. During this period his intervention saved the Hospital-General of Villemarie from suppression by the French government.--Another soil of the second Charles, Paul-Joseph, Chevalier de Longueuil, born in Canada, 17 September, 1701; died in France, 12 May, 1778, entered the army in 1718, and was made lieutenant in the Normandy regiment. After being commander of Fort Frontenac he became successively governor of Detroit, Three Rivers, and the citadel of Quebec. He did good service in several campaigns, especially in that of 1747. during which he marched 180 miles in the depth of winter, through frost and snow, at the head of his men to the succor of Rigaud de Vaudreuil, who was besieging Fort George. His subsequent services gained him the cross of St. Louis. Not wishing to live under English rule, he went to France after the surrender of Quebec.--Paul's son, Joseph Dominick Emanuel, Canadian soldier, born in Canada; died in Montreal, 19 Jan., 1807, entered the army, became major of marines, and remained in Canada after the conquest. His bravery in defending Fort St. Jean against the English colonists in 1775 gained him rapid promotion. He was made inspector-general of militia in 1777, and afterward appointed colonel of the Royal Canadian regiment. He was created legislative councillor during the administration of Lord Dorchester, which post he held until his death.--The first Charles's second son, James, Sieur de St. Helene, born in Villemarie, Canada, 16 April, 1659; died in Quebec in October, 1690, took part in the expedition of De Trove against the English in 1686. At the head of a detachment of fifty men he embarked on a deserted English vessel, and attacked Fort St. Rupert. The garrison, although superior in number, were astounded at his daring, and laid down their arms without striking a blow. He then took part in the attack on Fort Quitchitchouen, the capture of which gave the French the mastery of the southern part of Hudson bay. In 1690 he shared the command of the force that was sent to capture Schenectady, and, after plundering and burning this town, he returned to Montreal. In October of the same year Quebec was besieged by Admiral Phips, and Le Moyne was selected to oppose him. With a force of about 200 volunteers he defended the passage of St. Charles river against 1,300 British troops, who were attempting to cross. The English were repulsed, but. Le Moyne fell mortally wounded at the moment of victory.--Paul, Sieur de Marieourt, fourth son of the first Charles, born in Villemarie, 15 December, 1663; died there, 21 March, 1704. followed his brother, Iberville (q. v.), in his different campaigns in Hudson bay, and had a large share in his military successes. In 1686, after traversing countries that were till then, unknown, crossing several mountains and rivers and enduring incredible hardships, he reached his brother, who was before Fort St. Rupert. He embarked with a few men on board two canoes, and then, in concert with Iberville, captured an English cruiser in the harbor. He was one of the first to go to the succor of Quebec in 1690, and, except his brother, the Sieur de St. Helene, no one contributed more to the defeat of the English troops, in 1696 he was placed by Frontenae at the head of a corps composed of Sault St. Louis Indians and Christian Abenaquis. After ravaging the country of the Iroquois, and forcing them to lay down their arms, he successfully negotiated terms of peace. The savages, who had learned to esteem his honesty, adopted him into their tribe, chose him for their protector, and begged of him to be a mediator between them and the French governor.--Joseph, Sieur de Sorigny, sixth son of the first Charles, born in Villemarie, 22 July, 1668; died in Rochefort, France, in 1734, went to France, and was sent to conduct the flotilla with which his brother, Iberville, was to take possession of Hudson bay. He did good work in this office, and afterward attacked the Spaniards, who had fortified the Bay of Pensacola, driving them away on 15 June, 1719. He then went to Louisiana, where he erected several forts. He raised there a fort with four bastions on Mobile bay, defended Dauphin island against the Spaniards, and, after driving them from it, constructed a spacious roadstead, he sailed for France in 1720, was promoted to the grade of captain in the navy, and afterward resided in Rochefort, of which he was made governor in 1723.--Another son of the first Charles, Antoine, Sieur de Chateauguay, born in Montreal, 7 , July, 1683; died in Rochefort, France, 21 March, 1747, entered the royal army, and arrived in Louisiana in 1704 with a band of colonists, he served under Iberville in his last expeditions against the English in 1705-'6, was made commandant of the troops in Louisiana in 1717, and king's lieutenant of the colony and a knight of St. Louis in 1718. He took command of Pensacola after aiding with an Indian force in its capture from the Spaniards, 14 May, 1719, surrendered it to them, 7 August, 1719, and was himself retained a prisoner of war till July, 1720. He resumed command at Mobile after the peace in 1820, was removed from office and ordered to France in 1726, and was governor of Martinique from 1727 till 1744. He returned to France in the latter year, and was appointed governor of Isle Royale, or Cape Breton, in 1745.

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