Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com advises that these 19th Century
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CAUPOLICAN (cow-po-le-can'), Chilian ca-cique, born in Chili in the early part of the 16th century ; died in February, 1558. During the Chilian war of conquest, several indecisive encounters had taken place between the Spaniards and the native warriors, when Caupolican waited for the Spanish troops under Valdivia at the Tucapel valley, and completely routed them, after a long and fierce battle, 2-3 December, 1553. All the prisoners were sacrificed by the Indians, and, in spite of Caupolican's endeavors to save Valdivia from the massacre, his Indians took the Spanish chief and cruelly put him to death. In April, 1554, Caupolican gained another victory against Villagran, who was the successor of Valdivia, and afterward, in the same year, took several places occupied by the Spaniards, burned Concepcidn, and laid siege to Imperial, but Villagran forced him to raise it. Garcia de Mendoza, who succeeded Villagran as governor of Chili in 1557, continued the war, routing Caupolican at Mount Pinto, near Coneepcidn, and in another battle, in which the Indians lost over 6,000 men. Again Caupolican attacked the Spaniards, but was twice defeated at the Puren passes, January and February, 1558. He took refuge in the mountains, but was discovered and made a prisoner with some other Indian chiefs, sent to Cariete, and executed.
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In this powerful, historic work, Stan Klos unfolds the complex 15-year U.S.
Founding period revealing, for the first time, four distinctly different United
American Republics. This is history on a splendid scale -- a book about the not
quite unified American Colonies and States that would eventually form a fourth
republic, with only 11 states, the United States of America: We The