Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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MARKHAM, Clements Robert, English explorer, born in Stillingfleet, near York, 20 July, 1830. He was educated at Westminster school, entered the navy in 1844, and became a lieutenant in 1850, but resigned the following" year on returning from an expedition in search of Sir John Franklin. In 1852-'4 he explored Peru and the forests of the eastern Andes. Subsequently he entered the civil service and was placed in charge of the geographical department of the India office in 1868. He became secretary of the Hakluyt society in 1858 and of the Royal geographical society in 1863, and in 1872-'8 edited the "Geographical Magazine." Mr. Markham introduced the cultivation of the cin-chona-plant into India and Ceylon in 1860-'1. He aided in preparing a. manual of arctic discoveries and other information for the use of the expedition to the north pole that was sent out under his brother, Commander Albert H. Markham, in May, 1875. He is the author of many works on geographical and historical subjects, including "Franklin's Footsteps" (London, 1852) ; "Cuzco and Lima " (1856) ; " Travels in Peru and India" (1862) ; "A Quichua Grammar and Dictionary" (1863) ; "Ollanta, a Quichua Drama" (1871); "The Threshold of the Unknown Region" (1874); "A Memoir of the Countess of Chinchon " (1875); " Peruvian Bark" (1880); and " The War between Chili and Peru" (1883). He has translated several Spanish accounts of the conquest of Peru for the Hakluyt society and superintended many of its other publications.
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