Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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CUAUHTEMOTZIN (kwau-tay-too-tseen'), which means "Eagle's Eyesight," sometimes called Cuauhtemoc, Quauhtemotzin, Quauhtemoc, Guate-moc, Guatimoc, or Guatimocin, thirteenth and last Mexican king (eleventh monarch, according to other accounts), born in 1495; died in 1524. He was the son of Ahuitzol, and married Tecuichpatzin, a daughter of Motecuhzoma (Moctezuma) and the widow of Cui-tlahuatl, his own uncle, whom he succeeded on the throne, being elected and crowned about the end of January 1521. Cuauhtemotzin at once began to strengthen the defenses of the City of Mexico; but Cortes, after several successful battles and subsequent agreements with the natives, besieged the City with a large force of Indian allies and his Spanish troops, and finally Cuauhtemotzin and all his warriors surrendered (13 August 1521). The siege lasted 75 days, and cost the Spaniards over 100 men of the 900 present, their allies losing several thousand, while many thousand Mexicans died fighting or from starvation and disease. Cuauhtemotzin had on one occasion, with the approval of the senate, sacrificed four Span-lards and 4,000 Indians, to obtain favor of the gods. The invaders tortured him to make him tell where his treasures and those of the temples were hidden; and three years afterward he was executed, with the kings of Texcoco and Tlacopan, on suspicion that they had conspired against the Spanish rule. The young emperor endured his torture calmly, and when the Texcoco chief groaned in his death-agony, reproved him, saying, "Do you think I am on a bed of roses?" A monument to Cuauhtemotzin, surmounted by a bronze statue, represented in the illustration, was erected in the City of Mexico in January 1887.
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