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Domingo Faustino Sarmiento

SARMIENTO, Domingo Faustino (sar-me-en'-to), president of the Argentine Republic, born in San Juan, 13 February, 1811. He received a limited education. In 1829 he took part in the rising against Rosas and quiroga, and at its defeat took refuge in Chili, where he was successively clerk, school-master, and overseer in a mine. He afterward entered journalism, and in 1842, under the protection of the minister, Manuel Montt (q. v.), he founded the first normal school for teachers in South America. In 1845-'7 he travelled, by order of the Chilian government, in Europe and the United States, to study the primary-school system. He made the acquaintance of Cobden, Guizot, Humboldt, and Horace Mann, and under Mann's influence he prepared a work on popular education, which was afterward published by order of the Chilian government. On his return to Chili he founded a weekly paper, " La Crdnica," in which he advocated the establishment in his country of a Federal republic. In 1849 he formed part of the staff of "El Progreso," and founded "El Monitor de las Escuelas," in which he advocated the interests of education. When General Urquiza, aided by Brazil and Uruguay, revolted against Rosas, Sarmiento with other exiles left Chili in 1851, and took part in the campaign that ended, 3 February, 1852, with the battle of Monte Caseros. In 1855 he established himself in Buenos Ayres, and devoted his time to the promotion of public instruction, founding the paper " Los Anales de la Educacion Comun." In 1856 he demanded the establishment of a department of public instruction, and he was appointed its director in 1857, establishing a model college in Buenos A yres. In 1859 he was elected senator, and in 1860, as minister of public instruction, he influenced the vote of $100,000 for the establishment of schools. In 1861 he was minister of the interior, and in 1862 he was elected governor of San Juan, where he suppressed a revolt of partisan chieftains, He was made rain-ister to Chili and Peru in 1864, and to the United States in 1865. While here he was elected president of the Argentine Republic for six years, assuming office, 12 October, 1868. During his administration the war with Paraguay was brought to a successful termination, railways and telegraphs were constructed, schools were multiplied, a National college was established in each province, the National observatory was founded, and immigration was promoted. Since that time he has been senator, has obtained the rank of general, and is proprietor and editor of "El Censor," con-tinning always to protect the interests of public education. Of his many works the most impor-taut are " De la Educacion popular" (Santiago, 1848); " Viajes pot Europa, Africa y Am@ica" (1848); " Memoria sobre Instruccion Primaria" (1849), " Argirdpolis, d la capital de los Estados C, onfederados" (1850; French translation, Paris, 1851); "Civilizacion y Barbarie, d Facundo Qui-toga y Aldao" (1851: French translation, Paris, 1853); " Vida de Abran Lincoln" (New York, 1866); and " Las Escuelas, base de la prosperidad en los Estados Unidos" (1868).

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