Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MARTIN DE MOYVILLE, Edouard Nicolas Henry, French explorer, born in Calais in 1715; died in Paris in 1779. His father was a "fermier general" of taxes, and the son followed the same career for several years. Being left at the death of his father with an independent fortune, he abandoned this pursuit, and opened his parlors to philosophers and authors. But his former profession had left a stain upon him, and he resolved to emigrate to Canada, which the peace of 1748 had restored to the French. Settling in Quebec in 1749, he was made a consulting member of the "Conseil souverain " of the city, and, by the suggestion of the governor-general, purchased a vast tract of land west of the peninsula of Upper Canada. After several unsuccessful attempts to colonize his new estate, Martin began to study the flora of Canada, then scarcely known to Europeans. During five years he explored Lower and Upper Canada, Acadia, Nova Scotial and Cape Breton, descending as far south as the New England states, west to Lake Michigan, and north to Hudson bay. He formed an herbarium of 1,450 plants, 180 of which were new. The war of 1756 put an end to his explorations, and he returned to Paris. On his arrival he immediately sent a paper to the Academy of sciences, in which he narrated his journeys, and, being invited by that body to undertake the publication of a flora of Canada, associated himself with the naturalist Gaudin, who classified the plants and gave them scientific names. They published "Flore du Canada" (6 vols., Paris, 1769)'; "De l'acelimatation des plantes Europdennes au Canada " (2 vols., 1771, with fig.); and "Histoire, description et proprietes des plantes medicinales de la welde de Saint Laurent au Canada" (2 vols., 1773, with fig.). Martin published "Journal de voyage a travers la Nou velle France du Nord ou Canada" (1761) ; "Expose de l'etat du Canada de 1750 a 1756" (1766); and "Les Six Nations," an essay on the history of the Canadian Indians (1772).
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