Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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PAINE, Elijah, jurist, born in Brooklyn, Connecticut, 21 January, 1757; died in Williamstown, Vermont, 28 April, 1842. He was graduated at Harvard in 1781, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1784, began to practise in Vermont, and became largely interested in the development of that state. He engaged in agricultural enterprises and in the manufacture of American cloths, for which purpose he constructed an establishment at a cost of $40,000 in Northfield, Vermont, then a wilderness. He also built a turnpike about twenty miles in length over the eastern spurs of the Green mountains. Mr. Paine was a member and secretary of the convention to revise the state constitution in 1786, and in 1789 was a commissioner to adjust the claims of New York and Vermont. He was a member of the legislature from 1787 till 1791, at the end of which term he was appointed judge of the supreme court, holding this office until 1795. He was then elected United States senator, as a Federalist, serving from 7 December, 1795, till 3 March, 1801, and from that year until his death he was United States judge for the district of Vermont. He was a member of the American academy of arts and sciences, of the American antiquarian society, and of other learned bodies, and was president of the Vermont colonization society. He was an earnest promoter of education, being a trustee of Dartmouth and Middlebury colleges, and of the University of Vermont. In 1782 he pronounced the first oration before the Phi Beta Kappa society of Harvard. Dartmouth gave him the honorary degree of A. B. in 1786, and Harvard that of LL.D. in 1812, which degree he also received from the University of Vermont in 1825.--His son, Martyn, physician, born in Williamstown, Vermont, 8 July, ]794: died in New York city, 10 November, 1877, was graduated at Harvard in 1813, and at the medical department in 1816. He practised in Montreal, Canada, from 1816 till 1822, when he removed to New York. During the cholera epidemic of 1832 he published a series of letters to Dr. John C. Warren, of Boston, which were collected in a volume entitled "The Cholera Asphyxia of New York" (New York, 1832). In 1841 he united with four other physicians in establishing the University medical college (now the medical department of the University of New York), in which he was professor of medicine and materia medica from 1841 till 1850, and of therapeutics and materia medica from 1850 till 1867. He was a member of many medical societies in this country and Europe, and received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Vermont in 1854. He was the author of " Medical and Physiological Commentaries " (3 vols., 1840-'44); "Essays on the Philosophy of Vitality and on the Modus Operandi of Remedial Agents" (1842) ; " A Therapeutical Arrangement of Materia Medica" (1842) ;" Physiology of Digestion" (1844) ; " Defence of the Medical Profession of the United States" (1847); " The Institutes of Medicine" (1847 ; 9th ed., 1870) ; "Organic Life as Distinguished from Chemical and Physical Doctrines" (1849) ; "Physiology of the Soul and Instinct as Distinguished from Materialism," in opposition to Professor Huxley and the naturalists of the modern school (1848; enlarged ed., 1872); and a " Review of Theoretical Geology" (1856). In 1852 he prepared for private circulation a memoir of his son, Robert Troup Paine, who died in 1851, in the year of his graduation at Harvard, and he also contributed largely to medical periodicals. A series of articles by him on the superiority of medical education in the United States over that of Great Britain, founded upon parliamentary documents, appeared editorially in the New York "Medical Press" (1859).--Another son, Elijah, lawyer, born in Williamstown, Vermont, 10 April, 1796; died in New York city, 6 October, 1853, was graduated at Harvard in 1814, and studied law in Litchfield, Connecticut. He became a partner of Henry Wheaten, and assisted in preparing Wheaton's "Reports of the United States Supreme Court from 1816 till 1827" (12 vols., New York and Philadelphia, 1826-'7; 2d ed., Philadelphia, 1847). From 1850 till 1853 he was a judge of the superior court of New York, and his decision in the Lemmon slave case was particularly able. (See ARTHUR, CHESTER ALAN.) He was the author of Paine's "United States Circuit Reports" (New York, 1827; 2d vol., published by Thomas W. Waterman, 1856); and in connection with John Duer he published "Practice in Civil Actions and Proceedings in the State of New York" (2 vols., 1S30).--Another son, Charles, governor of Vermont, born in Williamstown, Vermont, 15 April, 1799; died in Waco, Texas, 6 July, 1853, was graduated at Harvard in 1820, and engaged successfully in manufacturing. From 1841 till 1843 he was governor of Vermont, and he was a liberal benefactor of the state university and other institutions of learning. He rendered the state great service in the construction of its railroads, and was active in the Southern Pacific railroad movement.
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