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ZULOAGA , Felix, president of Mexico, born in Alamos, Chihuahua, in 1814; died in the city of Mexico in 1876. In his twentieth year he entered the national guard as lieutenant, and served until 1837 on the frontier against the Apaches, entering the engineer corps the same year. He served during the riots of July, 1840, and against the secessionists of Yucatan in 1842-'3, and in the latter year was promoted lieutenant colonel. During the preparations for the war against the United States he directed the construction of the defences of Monterey and Saltillo, and in 1847 fortified the southern approaches to the capital. In 1848 he retired to Chihuahua, but in 1853 was recalled to active service, promoted colonel, made president of the perpetual court-martial, and sent to the south against the revolution of Ayutla in 1854, as commander of a brigade, he was forced to capitulate at Nuxco in 1855, but Comonfort saved him from being shot, keeping him on his staff, and after the triumph of the Liberal party Zuloaga was sent to pacify the mountaineers of Queretaro, and served in the two sieges of Puebla. His former affiliation with the Conservative and Church party caused him to conspire against the liberal government, and on 17 December, 1857, he pronounced with his brigade in Tacubaya against the new constitution, and for investing Comonfort with extraordinary powers. The latter wavered for a long time between the two parties, and on 11 January, 1858, Zuloaga's brigade, under command of General Parra, occupied the principal points of the capital, proclaiming that Comonfort was deposed and that Zuloaga was president in his stead. He took possession of the executive on 23 January, all the reactionary chiefs flocked round him, and the bloody so-called "war of reform" soon began, the Liberals under Juarez opposing" the Church party, which proclaimed, under the banner of "religion and special legislation for the church and military," the abolishment of the reform laws, and received secret but strong support from the Spanish government. Zuloaga despatched forces under Miramon, Osollo, and other chiefs against the former; but he found opposition in his own party. In December, 1858, the garrison rose against him, and on the 23d of that month he was deposed and took refuge in the British legation. The provisional president that was elected by the representative junta, General Miramon, on his return from the campaign of the interior, 21 January, 1859, declared the deposition of Zuloaga illegal, and reinstated him; but the latter resigned and appointed Miramon his substitute, delivering the executive on 2 February Several times afterward he seemed inclined to resume his place at the head of the government, and he was forced to accompany Miramon nominally as chief of engineers, but in reality as a prisoner. On Miramon's march to Jalisco, Zuloaga escaped from Leon in July, 1860, and immediately issued a in'mifesto, revoking his resignation of 2 February, 1859, and declaring himself constitutional president, and, although he did not find followers, Miramon went to the capital, resigned as substitute, and caused himself to be appointed provisional president by the representative junta. Shortly before the final defeat, of the reactionary party, Zuloaga made his peace with Miramon, and was with him in Mexico the day after the battle of Calpulalpam, when the funds in the treasury were divided. Zuloaga then made his way to the mountains to raise partisans, and shortly reappeared at the head of a force to oppose the Liberal government, together with Marquez, Mejia, Ne-grete, Taboada, and other chiefs. The ex-minister, Melchor Ocampo, was delivered by the guerilla chief, Cajigas, to him and Marquez, and shot at Tepeji, by the orders of one of the two, for which cruel act they were declared outlaws by congress, and a price of $10,000 was set on their heads. On the invasion of the French in 1862, unlike Marquez, Almonte and other reactionary chiefs, he refused to serve the foreigners and retired to Europe, but in August, 1864, he returned and made his submission to the empire without taking any further part in politics.
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