Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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HALL, Fitzedward, philologist, born in Troy, New York, 21 March, 1825. He was educated at the Rensselaer polytechnic institute, from which he received the degree of civil engineer in 1842, and at Harvard, where he was graduated in 1846. During his collegiate course he published enough German translations anonymously to fill three volumes. Immediately on leaving college, he sailed from Boston for Calcutta, where he remained nearly three years, studying first Hindfistani and Persian, and subsequently Bengalee and Sanskrit. He supported himself by contributing to local journals not only original matter, but translations in prose and verse from the French, Italian, and modern Greek. After residing five months at Ghazeepore, he removed to Benares in January, 1850, and a month later was appointed to a tutorship in the government college there. In 1853 he was promoted professor, and in July, 1855, was transferred to Ajmere as inspector of schools for Ajmere and Mairwara, to which was added the superintendency of the Ajmere government school. His last appointment in India was that of school inspector for the Sangor and Nerbudda territories, which office he retained from 1856 till 1862. During the Indian mutinies Professor Hall was besieged for seven months in the Sangor fort. In 1860 he received the degree of D. C. L. from Oxford. Settling in London in November, 1862, he accepted the chair of Sanskrit, and that of Indian jurisprudence in King's college, and also filled other offices. In 1869 he removed to Marlesford, Suffolk, where he still (1887) resides. Professor Hall was the first American to edit (in 1852) a Sanskrit text. He has also discovered several interesting Sanskrit works supposed to have been lost, such as "Bharata's Ngtyasastra," the "Harshaeharita," and a complete copy of the valuable "Brihaddevatg," of which only a small fragment was previously known to exist. The various Sanskrit inscriptions that he has deciphered and translated throw much new light on the history of ancient India. He is at present one of the editors of the new English dictionary that is in course of publication at Oxford under the supervision of James A. H. Murray. Professor Hall's principal works are, Sanskrit: The Atmabodha, with its Commentary, and the Tattvabodha" (Mirzapore, 1852); "The Sgnkhyapravaehana" (Calcutta, 1856); "The Sfiryasiddhgnta" and "The Vgsavadattg" (Calcutta, 1859); "The Sankhyasgra" (Calcutta, 1862), and "The Dasarfipa, with its Commentary, and Four Chapters of Bharata's Natyasastra" (Calcutta, 1865). Hindi" "The Tarkasan-graha, translated into Hindi from the Sanskrit and English" (Allahabad, 1850); and "The Siddhanta sangraha" (Agra, 1855). Professor Hall has also edited Dr. J. R. Ballantyne's "Hindi Grammar" (London, 1868), and published a "Reader" (Hertford, 1870) in that language. Besides other works of a similar character, he has issued "Lectures on the Nygya Philosophy, Sanskrit and English" (Benares, 1852); "A Rational Refutation of the Hindu Philosophical Systems, translated from the Hindi and Sanskrit" (Calcutta, 1862); "Recent Exemplifications of False Philology" (New York, 1872); "Modern English" (New York and London, 1873); and "On English Adjectives in -able, with Special Reference to Reliable" (London, 1877).--His brother, Benjamin Homer, author, born in Troy, New York, 14 Nov., 1830. He was graduated at Harvard in 1851, and in 1856 was admitted to the bar in Troy, New York He served as city clerk in 1858-'9, and was city chamberlain from 1874 till 1877, and again from 1884 till 1885. Mr. Hall has contributed freely to the periodicals of the day, both in prose and verse, and is the author of articles in the " Harvard Book " (Cambridge, 1875), and Sylvester's "History of Rensselaer County, New York" (Philadelphia, 1880). He has published "A Collection of College Words and Customs" (Cambridge, 1851; revised and enlarged ed., 1856); "History of Eastern Vermont, etc." (New York, 1858; 2 vols., Albany, 1865); and "Bibliography of the United States: Vermont" (New York, 1860). He has edited "A Tribute by the Citizens of Troy to the Memory of Abraham Lincoln" (Troy, 1865).
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