Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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ARCE, Francisco, pioneer, born in Lower California in 1822; died in 1878. From the age of eleven he lived in Alta California. At the time of the American conquest in 1846 he was a military officer, and was secretary to General Jose Castro, commander of the Californian forces. His name is known from his connection with a party of men who, in June 1846, were bringing horses, generally supposed to belong to the Californian government, from Sonoma to the south. Captain John C. Fremont, then in command of an American surveying party in the territory, incited American settlers to assail the party, seize upon the horses, and begin hostilities against the Californian government. From this Arce-affair of 6 June dates the beginning of the "Bear Flag" revolt and of the seizure of California by the Americans.
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