Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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SANTANIIER, Francisco de Paula (san-tan'-clair), president of Colombia, born in Rosario de Cucuta in 1792: died in Bogota, 5 May, 1840. He :studied in the College of San Bartolome in Bogota, and was about to be graduated in law, when the news arrived of the declaration of independence in Caracas 'in 1810, followed by the revolution in Cartagena. Santander immediately took part in the patriotic movement, and was appointed secretary of the military commander of Mariquita. In 1811 he joined the Federal forces under Baraya, in the campaign against the Unitarian forces under Narifio, and he was taken prisoner, 9 January, 1813. In February, 1813, he joined the forces under Bolivar, and during that year and 1.814 kept up a guerilla warfare against the Spanish troops in the district of Cucuta. When New Granada was invaded by Morillo, he retired in 1816 with the remnant of his forces to the province of Casanare, joining there the rest of the dispersed patriot army under several chiefs. A meeting of all the independent leaders was held in Arauca on 16 July, and Santander was elected commander-in-chief; but he was soon replaced by General Paez (q. v.). Santander left the army of Apure in February, 1817, joined Bolivar's staff in April, and accompanied him in the campaign against Guayana and the unfortunate operations against Morillo in 1818. In August of -that year he was promoted brigadier and commissioned by Bolivar to prepare a force for the campaign of 1819. He joined Bolivar in Guasdualito in June of that year, and his vote principally decided the invasion of New Granada, in which he participated, being promoted general of division on the battle-field of Boyaca on 7 August When Boli-vat returned to Venezuela, 20 September, he appointed Santander vice-president of the state of Cundina-marca, and as such he sent troops to the south against the Spanish president of Quito. The congress of Cucuta elected Santander on 30 August, 1821, vice-president of the newly constituted republic of Colombia, and from December, 1821, until September, 1826, during Bolivar's absence in Quito and Peru, he was at the head of the executive, acting' with prudence and ability, and exerting himself to forward re-enforcements to Bolivar. He was re-elected in the same year" but after Bolivar's return he resigned, and began a systematic opposition to the latter, showing himself in the convention of Ocaria, to which he was elected by the province of Bogota, to be a personal enemy of the liberator, under the pretext that the latter had tried to subvert the constitution for personal ambition. Santander was even charged with complicity in the attempt to murder Bolivar on 25 September, 1828, and he was condemned to death on 7 November, but his sentence was commuted to banishment. He travelled through England, France, and Germany, and while absent was elected president of the new republic of New Granada for the term of 1832-'6. His administration was just and progressive, especially in fostering primary education and introducing the Lancaster system in the com-mort schools, founding colleges in the provinces, and dividing the republic into three university districts. He was elected to congress in 1837, reelected in 1839, and died during the session of that body. He wrote a justification of his conduct under the title "Apuntamientos para las Memorias de Colombia y Nueva Granada" (Bogota, 1837).
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