Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MINA, Francisco Javier (mee'-nah), Spanish revolutionist, born in Idocin, Spain, in December, 1789; died in San Gregorio, Mexico, 11 November, 1817. He was destined by his parents, who were small farmers, for a legal career, but abandoned it on the invasion of Spain by Napoleon, and formed in his native province of Navarra bands of guerillas against the French. In 1812 he was taken prisoner and did not return to his country till 1814. With his uncle, General Espoz y Mina, he was concerned in the revolutionary movement of Pamplona to force Ferdinand VII. to grant a constitution. and on its failure they emigrated to France, 4 October, 1814. Young Mina visited London, where he met several Mexican patriots, and resolved to assist in the liberation of Mexico. He went to New Orleans, 23 February, 1817, where he gathered a force of adventurers and landed with about 500 men in the roadstead of Soto la Marina on 15 April. After the desertion of some of his volunteers he marched in May with about 300 men toward San Luis Pogosi, and met on 8 June the division of General Arminan, whom he defeated. He captured the fort of Sombrero, in the Comanja range, on the 15th, defeated Ordonez at San Felipe on the 20th, and captured the estate of Jaral, which had been abandoned by the owner, the Marquis of Moncada. obtaining a quantity of arms and 140,000 francs in silver, lie afterward took the rich city of Leon, and then retired to the fort of Sombrero, where on 1 August he was besieged by the enemy. After nineteen days Mina made a sortie, but was defeated, and with 100 men took refuge in San Gregorio. He afterward captured San Luis de la Paz and entered the city of Guanajuato, but his men, scattering for pillage, were defeated, and Mina barely escaped with fifty men to the farm of Venadito. There he was surprised, on 27 October, by a force of 500 under Orrantia, captured after a desperate resistance, court-martialed, carried to Fort San Gregorio, and shot there with twenty-five companions. The news of his capture was celebrated in the capital by the ringing of bells and firing of cannon, and the viceroy was created Count of Venadito.
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