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ROCHEFOUCAULDLIANCOURT D'ES-TISSAE, Francois Alexandre Frederic, Duke de la (rosh-foo-co), French publicist, born in La Roche-Guyon, 14 January, 1747 ; died in Paris, 28 March, 1827. He was known in his youth as Count de la Rochefoucauld, but in 1767 took the title of Duke de Liancourt, and on 28 May, 1783, succeeded his father as a peer. He rose to be a lieutenant-general in 1790, and was knighted in 1784. As early as 1775 he carried on agricultural improvements on his estate of Liancourt, and in 1780 founded there, at his own expense, a school of mechanical arts for soldiers' sons, which has become the school of "Arts et metiers" of France. He was a favorite of Louis XVI., who reposed much confidence in him, and sought his advice before concluding a treaty of alliance with the United States, which the duke urged him to sign. He was deputy to the assembly of notables in 1788, and to the states-general in 1789, presided over the constituent assembly during the night of 4 August, 1789, in which the abolition of titles of nobility was voted, was military commander at Rouen in 1792, and endeavored to save the king. He was dismissed, 12 August, 1792, and passed to England, where he sojourned till 1794, when he came to the United States. After travelling through the principal states, he devoted himself to the study of the agricultural methods of the country, and bought a farm in Pennsylvania, where he spent some time in experiments. In 1798 he visited Denmark and Holland, and in 1799 he returned to live on his estate of Liancourt, which Bonaparte restored to him; but he steadily refused to accept any office at the imperial court, though he was a member of the corps legislatif during the whole of Napoleon's reign. At the restoration of Louis XVIII. he was created a peer, and afterward he devoted himself to the prosecution of useful arts and to benevolent institutions. He established in Paris the first savings-bank, and was also influential in introducing vaccination in France. Toward the close of his life he became an eager opponent of the government, advocating American principles and American institutions, and acquired through his benevolence and philanthropic actions great popularity, which caused the royalists to give him the mock surname of the "Saint Vincent de Paul of the liberal party." His life has been written by his son (1829). His works include "Etudes sur les prisons de Philadelphie " (Philadelphia, 1796), and "Voyage dans les Etats-Unis" (8 vols., New York, 1795-'7).
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