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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





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Frederick William Lander

LANDER, Frederick William, soldier, born in Salem, Massachusetts. 17 December, 1821; died in Paw Paw, Virginia, 2 March. 1862. He was educated at Dummer academy, Byfield, and studied civil engineering at the military academy at Norwich, Vermont He practised that profession a few years in Massachusetts, and was then employed by the United States government in conducting important explorations across the continent. He made two surveys to determine the practicability of a railroad-route to the Pacific, and from the second, which was undertaken at his own expense, he alone, of all the party, returned alive. He afterward surveyed and constructed the great overland wagon-route. While engaged in 1858 on this work, his party of seventy men were attacked by the Pah Ute Indians, over whom they gained a decisive victory. He made five trans-continental explorations altogether, as engineer, chief engineer, or superintendent, and for his efficiency received praise in the official reports of the secretary of the interior. When the civil war began in 1861 he was employed on important secret missions in the southern states, served as a volunteer aide on General McClellan's staff, and participated with great credit in the capture of Philippi and the battle of Rich Mountain. He led one of the two columns that set out, 3 June, 1861, to surprise the enemy at Philippi, and, after marching all night, opened the attack with an effective artillery fire, and soon put the Confederates to flight. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 17 May, and in July took an important command on the upper Potomac. Hearing of the disaster at Bali's Bluff, he hastened to Edward's Ferry, which he held with a single company of sharp-shooters, but was severely wounded in the leg. Before the wound was healed he reported for duty, and at Hancock, 5 January, 1862, he repelled a greatly superior Confederate force that besieged the town. Though much debilitated by his wound, he made a brilliant dash upon the enemy at Blooming Gap, 14 February, 1862, for which he received a special letter of thanks from the secretary of war. The enemy retreated before the Union cavalry, but checked their pursuers in the pass, until General Lander called for volunteers and swept down on the Confederate infantry. Increasing ill health compelled him to apply for temporary relief from military duty; but, while preparing an attack on the enemy, he died of congestion of the brain. His death was announced in a special order issued by General McClellan on 3 March. General Lander wrote many stirring patriotic poems on incidents of the campaign. -His wife, Jean Margaret Davenport, actress, born in Wolverhampton, England, 3 May, 1829, was the daughter of Thomas Donald, a Scotchman, who was originally a lawyer, but became manager of the Richmond theatre, where, at the age of eight, Jean made her first appearance. In 1838 she was brought to the United States and played in various cities. In 1842 she returned to Europe, where she travelled, and studied music under Garcia. At the London Olympic she became a favorite as Juliet in " The Countess" and as Julia in "The Hunchback." In 1846 she took a company to Holland, where she was for two years highly successful, and upon returning to England, in 1848, became well known as a reader. In 1849 she visited the United States for the second time, and appeared, 24 September, 1851, at the Astor place opera-house. She went to California in 1855, and subsequently twice revisited England. On 12 October, 1860, at San Francisco, she married General Lander. Soon after his death, together with her mother, she took entire charge of the hospital department at Port Royal, South Carolina, where for over a year she rendered good service. She afterward returned to her home in Massachusetts, but on 6 February, 1865, she reappeared upon the stage at Niblo's garden, New York. in a play of her own translation called "Messalliance." She afterward played the character of Queen Elizabeth at the National theatre, in Washington, in April, 1867, and appeared elsewhere throughout the country with success. She was the first representative in this country of Browning's "Colombe," Hawthorne's " Hester Prynne," and Reade's "Peg Woffington," also appearing in translations of Scribe's "Adrienne Lecouvreur," Schiller's "Mary Stuart," Legouve's " Medea," and Giacometti's "Queen Elizabeth." Her last appearance was in Hawthorne's "Scarlet Letter" at the Boston theatre.--General Lander's sister, Lonisa, sculptor, born in Salem, Massachusetts, 1 September, 1826, modelled excellent likenesses of various members of her family in her youth, and also executed cameo heads. In 1855 she went to Rome and studied under Thomas Crawford, and soon afterward finished in marble "To-Day," a figure emblematic of America, and "Galatea." Among her subsequent works are a bust of Governor Gore, of Massachusetts; a bust of Hawthorne; a statuette of Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America; "Undine"; a life-size statue of "Virginia"; a reclining statue of "Evangeline"; "Elizabeth, the Exile of Siberia"; "Ceres Mourning for Prosperine"; "A Sylph Alighting," and numerous portrait-busts. Her last work is a large group "The Captive Pioneer."--Another sister, Sarah West, author, born in Salem, Massachusetts, 27 November, 1819; died there, 15 November, 1872, published a series of sketches of foreign countries, under the title of " Spectacles for Young Eyes," of which nearly 50,000 copies have been sold.

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