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GARCIA-MOREN0, Gabrial, South American statesman, born in Guayaquil, Ecuador, in 1821 ; died in Quito, 6 August, 1875. He was graduated in medicine In the University of Quito, and went to Europe to finish his studies in natural science. On his return he became professor of chemistry and physics in the University of Quito, and in 1857 was elected its rector. In 1859, when the government of President Robles was overthrown, he became a member of the provisional government, and in 1861 was elected president for four years. Although his character was violent, and he committed numerous cruelties, his administration was beneficial to the republic. The signing of a concordat with Rome in 1864 called forth numerous revolutionary outbreaks, and, being invested by congress with unlimited power, he proclaimed himself dictator on 30 August In 1865 he defeated an armed invasion of General Urbina, near Tambeli, and in the elections of the same year favored the presidency of Geronimo Carrillo, who was installed in August, but Garcia-Moreno retained the actual direction of public affairs. In 1867 he was appointed minister to Chili; but, after the fall of the government of Carrillo in 1869, headed a revolution, and again assumed dictatorial powers. In 1874 he issued a decree, giving to the pope the ten per cent of the revenue which belonged to the state. In 1875 he was again elected president for another term of six years, but on the eve of his reinstallation he was attacked in the gallery of the treasury building by three persons and fatally wounded.
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