Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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MALLERY, Garrick, jurist, born in Middlebury, Connecticut, 17 April, 1784; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 6 July, 1866. He was graduated at Yale in 1808, and studied law at the Litchfield law-school and at Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, where he was admitted to the bar in 1811. He was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1827, and three times re-elected, and was largely instrumental in developing the internal improvements and establishing the penitentiary system of the state. He was president judge of the 3d district in 1831-'6, and subsequently practised law in Philadelphia till his death.--His son, Garrick, ethnologist, born in Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, 23 April, 1831, was graduated at Yale in 1850, in 1853 received the degree of LL.B. from the University of Pennsylvania, and the same year was admitted to the bar of Philadelphia, where he practised law and engaged in editorial work until he entered the volunteer service as 1st lieutenant of Pennsylvania troops, 15 April, 1861. He rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and brevet colonel, and at the reorganization of the regular army in 1870 was commissioned as a. captain in the 1st United States infantry, with the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was twice severely wounded, was kept for some time in Libby prison, and received four promotions by brevet for gallantry in action. During the reconstruction period, while on military duty in Virginia in 1869-70 as judge-advocate on the staff of the successive generals commanding, he was appointed to the offices of secretary of state and adjutant-general of Virginia, with the rank of brigadier-general. In August, 1870, he was the first officer that was detailed for meteorological service with the chief signal-officer of the army. He was long in charge of the Signal-service bureau, and was its executive officer until August, 1876, when he was ordered to the command of Fort Rice, Dakota territory. There he made investigations into the pictographs and mythologies of the Dakota Indians, which led to his being ordered, 13 June, 1877, to report to Major John W. Powell, then in charge of the geological and geographical survey of the Rocky mountain region, for duty in connection with the ethnology of the North American Indians, being, in July, 1879, retired from active military service on account of wounds received in action. He received the appointment of ethnologist of the Bureau of ethnology on its organization at Washington in that year, which office he still (1888) holds. General Mallery was a founder and president of the Anthropological society and of the Cosmos club of Washington, and was chairman of the anthropological section of the American association for the advancement of science at its meeting in 1881. He has contributed largely to periodical literature, but his most important works, some of which have been translated, are "A Calendar of the Dakota Nation" (Washington, 1877); "The Former and Present Number of our Indians" (Salem, 1878); " Introduction to the Study of Sign Language among the North American Indians as illustrating the Gesture Speech of Mankind" (Washington, 1880):" Gesture Signs and Signals of the North American Indians, with some Comparisons" (1880); "Sign Language among the North American Indians compared with that among other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes" (1881) ; and "Pictographs of the North American Indians" (, 1886).
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