Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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CARTWRIGHT, George, English traveller, born in Marnham, Nottinghamshire, in 1739 ; died in 1819. He served in Germany in the seven years' war, and attained the rank of captain. Subsequently he made several voyages to Labrador, and in 1792 published a "Journal of nearly Sixteen Years' Residence on the Coast of Labrador" (3 vols., Newark, England, 1792). Coleridge, the poet, says, relative to this narrative of travels and adventures, that the annals of his campaigns among the foxes and beavers interested him more than the accounts of the exploits of Marlborough or Frederick.--His brother, John, English author, born in Marnham. Nottinghamshire, 28 September, 1740; died in London, 23 September, 1824. He entered the royal navy in 1758, and served under Sir Hugh Palliser and Admiral Byron on the Newfoundland station. He acted as chief magistrate of the settlement for five years, and during this period explored the interior of the island, made the acquaintance of the aborigines, and discovered Lieutenant's lake. In 1771 failing health rendered his temporary retirement from the navy necessary. In 1774 he attracted attention by advocating the freedom of the colonies, and in 1775 published a tract entitled "American lndependence the Glory and Interest of Great Britain." The tract advocated a union between the mother country and the colonies under separate legislatures. Its publication led to a rupture of his friendly relations with Lord Howe, and completed the estrangement that had begun with his refusal to accept a commission in the army to war against the Americans. On 2 April, 1777, he presented an address to the king, in which he recommended peace with the United States, and reiterated his proposal of a union, as suggested in his tract on American independence. He joined with Dr. Jebb and Granville Sharpe, in 1780, in forming the society for constitutional information. His zealous advocacy of the removal of parliamentary abuses, and the bestowal of the franchise upon all male adults, together with his active efforts in securing the election of a delegate designated as legislatorial attorney for Birmingham, subjected him to arrest, trial, and the payment of a fine. He published several political tracts, and in his "Letters on the Slave-Trade" favored making the traffic equally criminal with piracy. Charles James Fox regarded him as "one whose enlightened mind and profound constitutional knowledge placed him in the highest rank of public character." His niece, Frances died Cartwright, published his life and correspondence (2 vols., London, 1826). The work also contains a map of his discoveries and explorations in the interior of Newfoundland.
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