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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor

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George Duffield

DUFFIELD, George, clergyman, born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 7 October 1732; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2 February 1790. About 1732 his father, George Duffield, emigrated from Ireland to Pennsylvania, where he bought extensive lands. The son was partly educated at Newark, Del., and subsequently entered Princeton, where he was graduated in 1752. He studied theology under Dr. Robert Smith, of Pequea, and, after officiating for two years as tutor in Princeton, was ordained in September 1761, and took charge of the united Presbyterian Churches in the frontier towns of Carlisle, Big Spring, and Monaghan, Pennsylvania In 1766 Mr. Duffield made a missionary tour through the valleys of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, the object of which was to administer the offices of religion to families scattered throughout that region, and to establish Churches. He warmly espoused the sentiments of the "New Lights" in opposition to the "Old Side" party, and encountered much opposition, which was continued after his removal in 1771 to the 3d Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, and increased by the fact that he was a zealous Whig. On one occasion his Church was barred against him, and there was such a disturbance that a magistrate was called to read the riot act, but he was finally allowed to govern his charge unmolested.

During the Revolution he served as chaplain and fearlessly shared the dangers and privations to which the army was exposed, being so hated by the enemy that a reward was offered for his head. He was also associate chaplain with Bishop William White of the 1st Continental congress. He took an active part in the organization of the Presbyterian Church after the Revolution, and was chosen the first stated clerk of the general assembly, which place he held till his death. Yale conferred the degree of D.D. upon him in 1785. His only published works are "An Account of a Missionary Tour through Western Pennsylvania in 1766," by order of the synod, and a " Thanksgiving Sermon on Peace," delivered 11 December 1783.His son, George, born 28 July 1767, was a merchant in Philadelphia, and was register and comptroller of the state of Pennsylvania for many years

Mile was the father of George Duffield, clergyman, born in Strasburg, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 4 July 1794; died in Detroit, Michigan, 26 June 1868. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1811, studied theology in New York City under Dr. John M. Mason, and was licensed to preach in 1815, when he accepted a call to the Presbyterian Church in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where his grandfather had been pastor. He afterward held pastorates in Philadelphia, New York City, and Detroit, Michigan, where he remained till his death. Dr. Duffield was a careful student of science, as well as a distinguished linguist. During his residence in Michigan he identified himself with all educational and religious interests, and was twice regent of the State University. In the civil war he was conspicuous for his patriotism, striving to increase the number of troops sent from Michigan and helping to provide for wounded soldiers and their families. His works are "Regeneration" (New York, 1832); "Claims of Episcopal Bishops Examined" (New York, 1842); "Travels in the Holy Land"; and various discourses and addresses.

His wife, Isabella Graham Bethune, was a sister of Dr. George Bethune, and granddaughter of Isabella Graham, the philanthropist. Their eldest son, George, born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 12 September 1816, was graduated at Yale in 1837, studied at Union theological seminary, New York City, and was ordained 27 December 1840. He has held important pastorates in Brooklyn, Philadelphia. and in Michigan, where he has resided since 1861. His reputation depends chiefly upon the hymns which he has written and published, and which are held in much esteem by his Church.

Another son, Divie Bethnne Duffield, lawyer, born in Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, 29 August 1821, after studying at Dickinson, was graduated at Yale in 1840, and at the Law School in 1842. He was admitted to the bar in Detroit, Michigan, in 1843, and has since practiced his profession in that City. He has been a member of the board of education of Detroit for thirteen years, and is active in all educational interests throughout the state. He has delivered various public addresses, and has contributed to current literature both in prose and in poetry. He possesses a large and valuable library.

Another son, William Ward Duffield , soldier, born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 19 November 1823, was graduated at Columbia in 1842. He served in the Mexican war, was wounded at Cerro Gordo, 18 April 1847, and also at Contreras, 20 August 1847, while acting adjutant of the 2d Tennessee infantry and on General Gideon J. Pillow's staff. After the close of the war he became a civil engineer. He was resident engineer of the Hudson River railroad in 1851, chief engineer of the Oakland and Ottawa railroad, Michigan, and located that line from Pontiac to Grand Haven; chief engineer of the Central military tract railroad, Illinois, in 1854 (now part of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy railroad), and built that line; division engineer of the Grand trunk railroad, and built the line from Detroit to Port Huron. He served as lieutenant colonel of the 4th Michigan infantry in 1861, and was in the first battle of Bull Run. On 10 September 1861, he was appointed colonel of the 9th Michigan infantry. He joined G en. Sherman at Louisville, Kentucky, and was sent by him to occupy and fortify the pass through Muldraugh Hill, West Point, Kentucky, 22 January 1862. He was appointed by General Buell commander of the 23d brigrade, Army of the Cumberland, 22 April 1862, and brigadier general and president of the examining board under the act of congress to test the efficiency of volunteer officers, 2 May 1862. He overtook the Confederate forces under Colonel John Morgan at Lebanon, and captured the place after a sharp fight. He was assigned by General Buell to command all the forces in Kentucky, 8 May 1862, and was relieved of this post on 10 September He rejoined the 14th corps, Army of the Cumberland, under General Thomas, and served with it until the battle of Murfreesboro, where he was disabled by two severe wounds and captured. Unable to take the field at the time required by the act of congress, he resigned, and was appointed chief engineer of the Hudson River railroad.

He was employed in 1869 to survey lands in Colorado, in 1871'2 was chief engineer of the Kentucky union railroad, and located that line from Paris to Hazard. He was elected to the Michigan state senate in 1880, and in 1882 was employed in surveying government land in Dakota. In 1885 he was reappointed chief engineer of the Kentucky union railroad. He has published "School of Brigade and Evolutions of the Line" (Philadelphia, 1862).

Another son, Samuel Pearee Duffield, physician, born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 24 December 1833, was graduated at the University of Michigan in 1854, and remained there studying chemistry and anatomy till the following year, when he went to the University of Pennsylvania and studied medicine. He went to Berlin in 1856 to be treated for failing eyesight, and after obtaining relief studied physics and chemistry there and in Liebig's laboratory in Munich, finally receiving the degree of Ph.D. at the University of Giessen, Hesse. In 1858 he began to practice medicine at Detroit, still continuing his chemical investigations and giving special attention to toxicology and medical jurisprudence.

He soon became known as an analytical chemist, and has been frequently called upon to testify in the courts as an expert. For three months he worked with his friend Professor George Dragondorff in the laboratory of the Imperial University of Russia, at Dorpat, and is now (1887) engaged in writing a work describing his investigations there. Dr. Duffield arranged the chemical laboratory for the Detroit medical College, and delivered the opening address there in 1868. He tea(1 a paper at the Detroit meeting of the American pharmaceutical association, on the "Relation of [typodermic Injections to Toxicology," and is the author of numerous medical papers, including "Ventilation of Sewers ..... Contamination of Drinking Water ..... Analysis of Malt by Polarization "; and "Aconite Poisoning." He has also delivered an address upon the "Religion of Christ versus the Religion of the Scientists," before the Young Men's Christian Association in Detroit, Mich.

Another son, Henry Martin Duffield, lawyer, born in Detroit, Michigan, 15 May 1842, was graduated at Williams in 1861, and enlisted in that year in the 9th Michigan infantry. He was promoted to be adjutant of his regiment and assistant adjutant of U. S. troops in Kentucky in 1862. In 1863 he was made post adjutant of Chattanooga, and was wounded in the battle of Chickamauga while serving on the staff of General Thomas. From that date until the close of the war he was assistant provost marshal general of the Army of the Cumberland on General Thomas's staff. He was the orator on the occasion of the unveiling of the Garfield statue in Washington, in May 1887. He was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for congress in 1870, and has been corporation counsel for Detroit since 1876. He is also president of the state military board of Michigan. Samuel Willoughby, clergyman, son of the fourth George, born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1843" died in Bloomfield, New Jersey, 12 May 1887, was graduated at Yale in 1863, and in 1866 entered the Presbyterian ministry. At his death he held a charge in Bloomfield, N.J. He contributed to "The Evangelist" under the pen name of "Anselmus." His publications are "The Heavenly Land," in English verse, from the "De Contemptu Mundi" of Bernard de Morlaix (New York, 1868)" " Warp and Woof" (1870)" "English Hymns, their Authors and History" (1886)" and "Latin HymnWriters" (1887).

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