Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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CLUSERET, Gustave Paul, soldier, born in Paris, France, 13 June, 1823. He entered the military school of St. Cyr in 1841, became lieutenant in January, 1848, and was made a chevalier of the legion of honor for bravery in suppressing the insurrection of June, 1848. A few months after the coup d'elat he was retired for political reasons, and opened a painter's studio in Paris, but was shortly afterward replaced and served in Algeria and the Crimean war, being promoted to captain in 1855. He resigned his commission in 1858, joined Garibaldi in 1860, and commanded the French legion in his army, receiving the brevet of colonel in November of that year for gallantry at the siege of Capua, where he was wounded. He came to the United States in January, 1862, entered the National army, and was appointed aide-de-camp to General McClellan, with the rank of colonel. He was soon afterward assigned to General Fremont, who placed him in command of the advanced guard. He was in several engagements, and was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 14 October, 1862, for gallantry in the battle of Cross Keys. After some further service in the Shenandoah valley, he resigned on 2 March, 1863, and in 1864 edited in New York City the "New Nation," a weekly journal advocating Fremont for the presidency, and vehemently opposing the renomination of Lincoln. General Cluseret returned to Europe in 1867, took part in the Fenian agitation of that year, and was accused by the journals of leading under an assumed name, the attack on Chester castle. In the same year Cluseret wrote for the "Courrier Francais" a series of articles on "The Situation in the United States." In 1868 an obnoxious article in "L'Art," a journal founded by him, caused his imprisonment for two months, and in 1869, on account of his violent attacks on the organization of the army, he was again arrested, but pleaded that he was a naturalized American citizen, and was given up to Minister Washburne, who sent him out of the country. He returned to Paris on the fall of the second empire, which he had predicted, and began to assail the provisional government, but soon afterward engaged in attempts at insurrection in Lyons and Marseilles. In the following spring he became minister of war under the commune, and for a time was at the head of all its military operations. He was arrested On suspicion of treachery on 1 May, 1871. but escaped to England, and after a short visit to this country settled near Geneva. Switzerland, in 1872. He was condemned to death in his absence by a council of war. on 30 August of that year. Cluseret has published a pamphlet on "Mexico and the Solidarity of Nations" (1866); "L'Aree et la de Ino-cratie" (1869); and assisted to prepare the "Dictionnaire historique et geographique de l'Algerie."
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