Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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MARTIN, Henry Austin, physician, born in London, England, 23 July, 1824; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 7 December, 1884. He came to this country at an early age, was graduated at Harvard medical school in 1845, and practised in Boston. At the beginning of the civil war he was appointed staff-surgeon, and rose to be surgeon-in-chief of the 2d corps, Army of the Potomac, which post he held till near the close of the war. On his resignation he received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for "gallant and meritorious services." Afterward he paid particular attention to surgery, and gained great repute in the treatment of diseases of the rectum, he early made a thorough study of smallpox and vaccination, and in 1870 first introduced into this country the practice of true animal vaccination, and it was largely owing to his writings and labors that the method was so soon and so universally adopted. He was an authority on the subject in this country. In 1877, as chairman of the committee on animal vaccination of the American medical association, he made a full report on that subject, which appeared in the published volumes of the "Transactions," and was widely quoted from and reviewed here and abroad. In 1877 he introduced to the profession the treatment of ulcers of the leg, and many other kindred troubles, by the use of the pure rubber bandage that he had invented. The Martin bandage has been generally adopted, and has given its inventor a wide reputation in this country and abroad. In 1878 Dr. Martin announced to the profession his operation of tracheotomy without tubes, which he many times successfully performed. In 1881 he attended the International medical congress at London, and delivered a paper on treatment of synovitis of the knee-joint by aspiration and subsequent use of the Martin bandage, a method original with himself. Dr. Martin has contributed largely to medical journals, notably to the London "Lancet," the "British Medical Journal," and other magazines in England, as well as to the "North American Review " and many other journals in this country.
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