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BARNARD, Henry, educator, born in Hartford, Connecticut, 24 January 1811. He was graduated at Yale in 1830, was admitted to the bar in 1835, and from 1837 to 1840 sat in the Connecticut legislature, where he advocated reforms in prisons, insane asylums, and the common schools. He effected a reorganization of the public-school system, introducing school-houses of improved construction, high schools, teachers' institutes, a normal academy, and new methods of instruction. He also secured the adoption of similar reforms in other states. From 1838 to 1842 he was secretary of the board of school commissioners in Connecticut; from 1843 to 1849 school commissioner of Rhode Island; from 1850 to 1854 superintendent of the Connecticut state schools" from 1857 to 1859 president of the state University of Wisconsin; in 1865 and 1866 of St. John's College in Annapolis; and from 1867 till 1870 United States commissioner of education. In Rhode Island, where the right of taxation for school purposes had been denied for 200 years, he revolutionized public opinion so completely that a system of public education as complete as in any of "the original :New England states was adopted by the vote of two-thirds of the tax-payers in each town. While secretary of the school board he established the " Connecticut Common School Journal," and while in Rhode Island he issued the "Rhode Island School Journal." In 1855 he began the publication of the "American Journal of Education." His published works ale "School Architecture" (1839 ; 10th ed., Hartford, 1886) ; ":National Education" (1840) ; "Practical Illustrations of School Architecture," "Report on Public Schools in Rhode Island" (1845 and 1848); "Documentary History of Public Schools in Providence"; "Education and Employment of Children in Factories" ; "Normal Schools and Teachers' Institutes" (1850) ; ":National Education in Europe" (New York, 1854) ; "Normal Schools in the United States and Europe"; "History of Education in Connecticut from 1638 to 1854"; "Educational Biography" (1857) ; "Papers for Teachers" ; "Military Schools"; "Technical and Scientific Education"; "American Pedagogy"; "Discourses on the Life and Character of T. H. Gallaudet"; "Tribute to Dr. Gallaudet, with History of the American Asylum"; " Hints and Methods for the Use of Teachers American Teachers" ; "Elementary and Secondary Instruction in Switzerland, France, Belgium," etc. ; " English Pedagogy" ; "French Teachers, Schools, and Pedagogy"; "German Teachers and Educational Reformers"; "Life of Ezekiel Cheerer, and Notes on the Free Schools of New England "; "American Journal of Education" (1856-'86) ; "Kindergarten and Child Culture Papers"; "Object-Teaching and Oral Lessons on Social Science and Common Things" (New York, 1861); "Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism" (1861) ; "Primary Schools and Elementary Instruction"; " School Codes"; " Science and Art"; "Superior Instruction in Different Countries." From 1873 till 1886 Mr. Barnard devoted himself to revising his special treatises and completing others begun and developed in the "Journal of Education." In 1886 he announced a collected edition of his publications, under the title "The American Library of Schools and Education," in 52 volumes, comprising over 800 individual treatises, each of which is also published separately.
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