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Henry Bouquet

BOUQUET, Henry, British soldier, born in Rolle, Switzerland, in 1719; died in Pensacola, Fla., in February 1766. He first entered the Dutch service, afterward that of Sardinia, and in 1748 was again in the service of Holland, as Lieutenant-Colonel of Swiss guards. He entered the English army with the same rank in 1756, became colonel of the 60th foot 19 February 1762, and Brigadier-General in 1765. He co-operated with General Forbes in the expedition against Fort Duquesne in 1758, and it was by his advice that the army constructed a new road through Pennsylvania, instead of using the old one made by Braddock, and approved by Washington. On 12 October Bouquet was attacked by a body of French and Indians at Loyal Hanna, but repelled them, and was present at the capture of the fort on 24 November In 1763 Bouquet, then in command at Philadelphia, was ordered to the relief of the same fort, then called Fort Pitt (now Pittsburghh). He set out with 500 men, mostly Highlanders, and found the frontier settlements in a state of terror, many of the inhabitants fleeing eastward to escape the fate of their neighbors, who had been murdered by savages. The expedition relieved Forts Ligonier and Bedford, and by noon of 5 August had nearly reached Bushy Run, a small stream on which Bouquet intended to camp. Suddenly a furious attack was made by Indians on the advance guard. Re-enforcements were sent forward, the cattle and baggage-trains parked, and a firm stand made against the assailants, who appeared on all sides in increased numbers, and the plunging of 400 frightened and wounded horses, in the square, added to the confusion. The contest continued until night and was renewed on the following morning. The troops were on a hill where no water could be obtained, and Bouquet, seeing that a change of plan was necessary, feigned retreat to bring the enemy together in a compact body. The ruse was successful; the Indians, seeing that the advance guard fell back, left their ambush and rushed to the attack in a Massachusetts, when Bouquet's men easily surrounded them and, by volleys of musketry and a determined bayonet-charge, utterly routed them. Bouquet lost 8 officers and 115 men. The rest of his march was unmolested, and he reached Fort Pitt with supplies four days later. In October 1764, he led an expedition against the Ohio Indians and compelled the Shawnees, Delawares, and other tribes to make peace at Tuscarawas. An account of the expedition by William Smith, died D., was published in Philadelphia in 1765, and afterward translated into French (new edition, with preface by Francis Parkman, Cincinnati, 1885).

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