Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century
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LOCKWOOD, Henry Hayes, soldier, born in Kent county. Del., 17 August, 1814. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1836, assigned to the 2d artillery, and served against the Seminoles in Florida in 1836-'7, but resigned his commission on 12 September, 1837, and engaged in farming in Delaware until 1841. He was then appointed professor of mathematics in the United States navy and ordered to the frigate "United States," on which he participated in the capture of Monterey, California, in October, 1842. On his return he was ordered to the naval asylum at Philadelphia, and subsequently to the naval school at Annapolis, as professor of natural and experimental philosophy. In 1851 he was transferred to the chair of field artillery and infantry tactics, serving also as professor of astronomy and gunnery till 1866. During the civil war he served as colonel of the 1st Delaware regiment, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 8 August, 1861. He commanded an expedition to the eastern shore of Virginia, then had charge of Point Lookout and the defences of the lower Potomac, commanded a brigade at Gettysburg, and, from December, 1863. till April, 1864, was at the head of the middle department, with headquarters at Baltimore. He then participated in the Richmond campaign in May and June, 1864, and commanded provisional troops against General Jubal A. Early, in July, 1864. From that date until August, 1865, he commanded a brigade in Baltimore. He was mustered out of service on 25 August, 1865, and returned to the naval school in Annapolis. He was retired on 4 August, 1876. In addition to a tract entitled "Manual of Naval Batteries," he has published "Exercises in Small Arms and Field Artillery, arranged for the Naval Service" (Washington, 1852).--His son, James Booth, explorer, born at the United States naval academy, Annapolis, Maryland, 9 October, 1852; died at Cape Sabine arctic regions, 9 April, 1884; was sent to a private school at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and later to St. John's college, Annapolis. After some experience in farming and as a railway surveyor, he was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 2nd United States infantry, 1 October, 1878. He served in the west for the succeeding seven years, and became proficient not only in ordinary military duties, but also in surveying, telegraphy, and phonography. He volunteered for duty with the Lady Franklin bay expedition (see GREELY, ADOLPHUS W.) and, as second in command, was intrusted with the most important field work of the expedition, also assisting in the magnetic observations. In preliminary sledging he was in the field twenty-two days after the sun had left for the winter, and six days before its return. In March, 1882, Lieutenant Lockwood, with a dog sledge, made a few days' trip across Robeson channel to Newman bay in temperatures ranging from 30º to 55º, Fahrenheit, below zero. On 3 April, 1882, he started on the successful journey that fixes his fame as an arctic explorer. Using a dog sledge and assisted by eight men, he reached Cape Bryant, on the north Greenland coast, on 1 May, and thence he sent back the man sledges, and with dog sledge, accompanied by Sergt. Brainard and the Eskimo Christiansen, started northward. The party reached Cape Britannia on the fifth day's march, and thenceforward travelled along land before unknown. Lockwood island, in latitude 83º 24' N., longitude 40º 46' W., the most northerly point on land or sea that ever has been attained by man, was reached on 13 May, and two days were spent in observations. The Greenland coast yet trended to the northeast, being visible as far as Cape Washington, 83º 35' N., but there was no land to the north or northwest within the sixty miles that were visible from the summit of an adjacent cliff. Vegetation was comparatively abundant, while birds were seen and animal traces found. Fort Conger was again reached on 17 June. In sixty days Lieutenant Lockwood travelled 1,069 statute miles and experienced temperature as low as 49º below zero, Fahrenheit, without serious accident. His discoveries extended the boundary of known lands 28 miles nearer the north pole, and added 125 miles of entirely new coast line to Greenland. The farthest point that was seen on the Arctic ocean was within 350 miles of the pole. A most promising attempt in 188a to surpass the latitude of 1,882 failed only through the disintegration of the polar ice-pack. Later in the year, despite his misgivings, Lieutenant Lockwood, with Sergt. Brainard, supplemented Lieutenant Greely's discoveries of 1882 by crossing Grinnell land and reaching, by dog sledge, a point on the coast, 50 miles beyond Mount C. A. Arthur, which had been attained by that officer on foot. In the retreat of the Greely expedition in the autumn of 188a, and in the terrible winter at Camp Clay, Lieutenant Lockwood bore his part bravely. His remains were brought to the United States by the relief expedition under Captain Winfield S. Schley, and buried in the grounds of the naval academy. See Charles Lanman's "Farthest North" (New York, 1885), and " The Official Report of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition" (Washington, 1887).
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