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Hezekiah Packard

A Stan Klos Biography

PACKARD, Hezekiah, clergyman, born in North Bridgewater, Massachusetts, 6 December, 1761; died in Salem, Massachusetts, 22 April, 1849. He served in the Revolutionary war, became a farmer, and was graduated at Harvard in 1787. He was principal of the grammar-school in Cambridge in 1788, was assistant librarian in the college in 1789, and mathematical tutor there in 1789-'93.

 

In October, 1793, he was ordained pastor of the Unitarian church in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, where he remained till 1802. He was subsequently minister at Wiscasset, Maine, in 1802-'30, and at Middlesex Village, Massachusetts, in 1830-'6. He originated the Bible society of Lincoln County, Maine, the Eastern evangelical society, which existed for a few years, and was a member of the board of trustees and overseers of Bowdoin College for more than twenty years.

 

He published "The Christian's Manual" (1801) and numerous sermons, including two on "Federal Republicanism " (1799) and two on "Infant Baptism" (1815).

 

--His son, Alpheus Spring Packard, educator, born in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, 23 December, 1798; died on Squirrel island, Maine, 13 July, 1884, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1816, second in his class, and subsequently taught in Gorham and Hallowell until 1819, when he returned to Bowdoin as tutor.

 

In 1824 he was elected to the chair of Latin and Greek, which he then filled until 1865, holding also in 1842-'5 that of rhetoric and oratory. He was appointed to the professorship of natural and revealed religion in 1864, and held that chair until his death, becoming also in 1883 acting president of the college. His college career of sixty-five years was longer than that of almost any other college officer in this country.

 

Professor Packard was ordained on 16 May, 1850, as a Congregational clergyman, and during the later years of his life was college chaplain. He was appointed librarian of Bowdoin in 1869, and held that office during the remainder of his life.

 

He was an early member of the Maine historical society, and for forty-eight years its librarian and cabinet-keeper, and he held honorary membership in the historical societies of London and New York, and was a member of the American academy of arts and sciences. In 1869 Bowdoin gave him the degree of D.D.

 

His many writings include contributions to the "North American Review," the "Bibliotheca Sacra," and to the "Collections of the Maine Historical Society," and in book-form "Works of Reverend Jesse Appleton, with a Me-molt" (2 vols., Andover, 1836-'7), and "Xenophon's Memorabilia of Socrates, with English Notes" (1839). He edited "History of Bowdoin, with Biographical Sketches" (Boston, 1882). See "Memorial: Alpheus Spring Packard," by George T. Little (Brunswick, Maine, 1886).

 

--Another son, Joseph Packard, educator, born in Wiscasset, Maine, 23 December, 1812, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1831, and studied at Andover theological seminary in 1833-'4. He was professor in Bristol College, Pennsylvania, in 1835-'6, took orders in the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1836-'7, and since 1836 has been professor of biblical learning in the Episcopal theological seminary of Virginia, near Alexandria, of which he has been dean since 1876.

 

The degree of D. D. was conferred on him by Kenyon College, Gambler, Ohio, in 1847. He wrote the commentary on Malachi that appeared in the American edition of Lange's commentaries (New York. 1874), and was one of the American revisers of the Old Testament in 1870-'85. He has contributed articles to the Andover "Biblical Repository," and has published occasional sermons and addresses, including "Questions on the Gospels" (1855).

 

--Alpheus Spring's son, Alpheus Spring Packard, naturalist, born in Brunswick, Maine, 19 February, 1839, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1861 and at Maine medical school in 1864. Meanwhile he was volunteer assistant in 1861-'2 on the Maine geological survey, also studying natural history for three years under Louis Agassiz in Cambridge, part of which time he was Agassiz's assistant. In October, 1864, he was commissioned assistant surgeon of the 1st Maine veteran volunteers, and he served with the 6th corps of the Army of the Potomac until July, 1865.

 

During 1865 he was acting custodian and librarian of the Boston society of natural history, after which he joined Alpheus Hyatt, Edward S. Morse, and Frederick W. Putnam in the establishment of the Peabody academy of science in Salem, of which he was one of the curators in 1868-'76, also serving as director of its museum in 1877-'8. In the winter of 1869-'70 he made zoological collections on the Florida reefs and at Beaufort, North Carolina, and in 1871 at Charleston, South Carolina, and he was state entomologist of Massachusetts in 1871-'3.

 

Professor Packard was one of the instructors in the Agassiz science school at Penikese in 1873-'4, and was connected with the United States geological and geographical survey of the territories under Ferdinand V. Hayden in 1875-'7. Meanwhile he delivered lectures on entomology at Massachusetts agricultural college in 1869-'77, at Maine state agricultural college in 1871, at Bowdoin in 1873, and on comparative anatomy at Bowdoin in 1876, and he was connected with the United States fish commission in 1871-'4. In 1878 he was called to the chair of zoology and geology in Brown University, which he has since filled.

 

He was a member of the United States entomological commission during its existence in 1877-'82, making for it in 1877-'80 extensive tours in the western and Pacific states and the territories. His scientific work has been principally in the direction of entomology. In 1863 he proposed a new classification of insects, which has since been generally adopted both in Europe and in this country.

He discovered the morphology and mode of development of the ovipositor and sting of insects, the nature of the tracheae of insects, and has studied their external anatomy. His contributions to the natural history of the limulus, including the development and anatomy of the brain and nervous system, is considered of great value.

 

In paleontology he has collected and described the post-pliocene fossils of Maine and Labrador, and the merostomata and crustacea of the carboniferous formations of Illinois and Pennsylvania and shown the close relationship of the trilobites to limulus.

 

Professor Packard's writings have contributed to the extension of the evolution theory, and he advocates a modern form of Lamarckianism, to which he gives the term of neo-Lamarckianism. In studying this subject he has made observations on variations in insects induced by climate, on salt-water animals, and on cave or blind animals.

 

Professor Packard is a member of many scientific societies in the United States and Europe, and in 1872 was elected to membership in the National academy of sciences. He was one of the founders of the "American Naturalist" and its editor-in-chief until 1886. His bibliography includes upward of 400 titles.

 

His larger scientific memoirs include "Glacial Phenomena of Maine and Labrador" (1866); "Revision of the Fossorim Hymenoptera of North America" (1866-'7); "Structure of the Ovipositor of Insects" (1868); "Development and Anatomy of Limulus Polyphemus" (1871-'85); "Monograph of the Geometrid Moths" (1876) ; "The Brain of the Locust " (1881) ; "Monograph of North American Phyllopod Crustacea" (1883); and "The Cave Fauna of North America" (1888).

 

His popular works and textbooks comprise "A Guide to the Study of Insects" (Salem, 1869) ; "Record of American Entomology" (1868-'72); " The Mammoth Cave and its Inhabitants," with Frederick W. Putnam (1872); "Our Common Insects" (Boston, 1876) ; "Life Histories of Animals, including Man, or Outlines of Comparative Embryology" (New York, 1876) ; "Half-Hours with Insects" (Boston, 1877) ; "Insects of the West" (Washington, 1877; London, 1878): "Zoology for Students and General Readers" (New York, 1879; briefer course, 1883); "First Lessons in Geology" (Providence, 1882); "First Lessons in Zoology" (New York, 1886); "Entomology for Beginners" (1888) ; "A Naturalist on the Labrador Coast" (1888); and "Forest and Shade-Tree Insects" (Washington, 1888). See "The Entomological Writings of Dr. Alpheus Spring Packard," by Samuel Henshaw (1887).

 

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia by John Looby, Copyright © 2001 StanKlos.comTM

PACKARD, Hezekiah, clergyman, born in North Bridgewater, Massachusetts, 6 December, 1761; died in Salem, Massachusetts, 22 April, 1849. He served in the Revolutionary war, became a farmer, and was graduated at Harvard in 1787. He was principal of the grammar-school in Cambridge in 1788, was assistant librarian in the college in 1789, and mathematical tutor there in 1789-'93. In October, 1793, he was ordained pastor of the Unitarian church in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, where he remained till 1802. He was subsequently minister at Wiscasset, Maine, in 1802-'30, and at Middlesex Village, Massachusetts, in 1830-'6. He originated the Bible society of Lincoln county, Maine, the Eastern evangelical society, which existed for a few years, and was a member of the board of trustees and overseers of Bowdoin college for more than twenty years. He published "The Christian's Manual" (1801) and numerous sermons, including two on "Federal Republicanism " (1799) and two on "Infant Baptism" (1815).--His son, Alpheus Spring, educator, born in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, 23 December, 1798; died on Squirrel island, Maine, 13 July, 1884, was graduated at Bow, loin in 1816, second in his class, and subsequently taught in Gorham and Hallowell until 1819, when he returned to Bowdoin as tutor. In 1824 he was elected to the chair of Latin and Greek, which he then filled until 1865, holding also in 1842-'5 that of rhetoric and oratory. He was appointed to the professorship of natural and revealed religion in 1864, and held that chair until his death, becoming also in 1883 acting president of the college. His college career of sixty-five years was longer than that of almost any other college officer in this country. Professor Packard was ordained on 16 May, 1850, as a Congregational clergyman, and during the later years of his life was college chaplain. He was appointed librarian of Bowdoin in 1869, and held that office during the remainder of his life. He was an early member of the Maine historical society, and for forty-eight years its librarian and cabinet-keeper, and he held honorary membership in the historical societies of London and New York, and was a member of the American academy of arts and sciences. In 1869 Bowdoin gave him the degree of D.D. His many writings include contributions to the "North American Review," the "Bibliotheca Sacra," and to the "Collections of the Maine Historical Society," and in book-form "Works of Reverend Jesse Appleton, with a Me-molt" (2 vols., Andover, 1836-'7), and "Xenophon's Memorabilia of Socrates, with English Notes" (1839). He edited "History of Bowdoin, with Biographical Sketches" (Boston, 1882). See "Memorial: Alpheus Spring Packard," by George T. Little (Brunswick, Maine, 1886).--Another son, Joseph, educator, born in Wiscasset, Maine, 23 December, 1812, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1831, and studied at Andover theological seminary in 1833-'4. He was professor in Bristol college, Pennsylvania, in 1835-'6, took orders in the Protestant Episcopal church in 1836-'7, and since 1836 has been professor of biblical learning in the Episcopal theological seminary of Virginia, near Alexandria, of which he has been dean since 1876. The degree of D. D. was conferred on him by Kenyon college, Gambler, Ohio, in 1847. He wrote the commentary on Malachi that appeared in the American edition of Lange's commentaries (New York. 1874), and was one of the American revisers of the Old Testament in 1870-'85. He has contributed articles to the Andover " Biblical Repository," and has published occasional sermons and addresses, including "Questions on the Gospels" (1855).--Alpheus Spring's son, Alpheus Spring, naturalist, born in Brunswick, Maine, 19 February, 1839, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1861 and at Maine medical school in 1864. Meanwhile he was volunteer assistant in 1861-'2 on the Maine geological survey, also studying natural history for three years under Louis Agassiz in Cambridge, part of which time he was Agassiz's assistant. In October. 1864, he was commissioned assistant surgeon of the 1st Maine veteran volunteers, and he served with the 6th corps of the Army of the Potomac until July, 1865. During 1865 he was acting custodian and librarian of the Boston society of natural history, after which he joined Alpheus Hyatt, Edward S. Morse, and Frederick W. Putnam in the establishment of the Peabody academy of science in Salem, of which he was one of the curators in 1868-'76, also serving as director of its museum in 1877-'8. In the winter of 1869-'70 he made zoological collections on the Florida reefs and at Beaufort, North Carolina, and in 1871 at Charleston, South Carolina, and he was state entomologist of Massachusetts in 1871-'3. Professor Packard was one of the instructors in the Agassiz science school at Penikese in 1873-'4, and was connected with the United States geological and geographical survey of the territories under Ferdinand V. Hayden in 1875-'7. Meanwhile he delivered lectures on entomology at Massachusetts agricultural college in 1869-'77, at Maine state agricultural college in 1871, at Bowdoin in 1873, and on comparative anatomy at Bowdoin in 1876, and he was connected with the United States fish commission in 1871-'4. In 1878 he was called to the chair of zoology and geology in Brown university, which he has since filled. He was a member of the United States entomological commission during its existence in 1877-'82, making for it in 1877-'80 extensive tours in the western and Pacific states and the territories. His scientific work has been principally in the direction of entomology. In 1863 he proposed a new classification of insects, which has since been generally adopted both in Europe and in this country. He discovered the morphology and mode of development of the ovipositor and sting of insects, the nature of the tracheae of insects, and has studied their external anatomy. His contributions to the natural history of the limulus, including the development and anatomy of the brain and nervous system, is considered of great value. In paleontology he has collected and described the post-pliocene fossils of Maine and Labrador, and the merostomata and crustacea of the carboniferous formations of Illinois and Pennsylvania and shown the close relationship of the trilobites to limulus. Professor Packard's writings have contributed to the extension of the evolution theory, and he advocates a modern form of Lamarckianism, to which he gives the term of neo-Lamarckianism. In studying this subject he has made observations on variations in insects induced by climate, on salt-water animals, and on cave or blind animals. Professor Packard is a member of many scientific societies in the United States and Europe, and in 1872 was elected to membership in the National academy of sciences. He was one of the founders of the " American Naturalist" and its editor-in-chief until 1886. His bibliography includes upward of 400 titles. His larger scientific memoirs include "Glacial Phenomena of Maine and Labrador" (1866); " Revision of the Fossorim Hymenoptera of North America" (1866-'7); "Structure of the Ovipositor of Insects" (1868); "Development and Anatomy of Limulus Polyphemus" (1871-'85);" Monograph of the Geometrid Moths" (1876) ; " The Brain of the Locust " (1881) ; "Monograph of North American Phyllopod Crustacea" (1883); and "The Cave Fauna of North America" (1888). His popular works and textbooks comprise "A Guide to the Study of Insects" (Salem, 1869) ; "Record of American Entomology" (1868-'72); " The Mammoth Cave and its Inhabitants," with Frederick W. Putnam (1872); "Our Common Insects " (Boston, 1876) ; "Life Histories of Animals, including Man, or Outlines of Comparative Embryology" (New York, 1876) ; "Half-Hours with Insects" (Boston, 1877) ; "Insects of the West" (Washington, 1877; London, 1878): "Zoology for Students and General Readers" (New York, 1879; briefer course, 1883); "First Lessons in Geology" (Providence, 1882); "First Lessons in Zoology" (New York, 1886); " Entomology for Beginners" (1888) ; "A Naturalist on the Labrador Coast" (1888); and " Forest and Shade-Tree Insects" (Washington, 1888). See "The Entomological Writings of Dr. Alpheus Spring Packard," by Samuel Henshaw (1887).

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

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