Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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GREENOUGH, Horatio, sculptor, born in Boston. Massachusetts, 6 September, 1805; died in Somerville, Massachusetts, 18 December 1852. His idea of form was strongly marked in early youth, and he manifested a striking mechanical aptitude for imitating objects that impressed themselves on his mind. When he was fifteen years old, a French sculptor, Binon, taught him modelling in clay, and the rudiments of his art. Soon afterward he entered Harvard, where he was graduated in 1825, and during his career there enjoyed the advice of Washington Allston. At that time the youth made the design from which the present Bunker Hill monument was constructed. After completing his College course Greenough went to Florence, and then to Rome, where he arrived in the autumn of 1825. With the exception of a short sojourn in his native City in 1826, where he was occupied in modelling the busts of many distinguished men, and a brief visit to Paris, for the purpose of modelling a bust of Lafayette, he made his permanent residence in Italy, and there produced most of his historical and ideal compositions. In 1851 the sculptor returned to the United States, for the purpose of placing a group of four historical figures, entitled "The Rescue," in Washington. This work was ordered by congress, and the artist devoted about eight years to its construction. He died suddenly of brain fever. Greenough was an industrious artist; his works are numerous, of extended scope, and highly prized. Among the most important are the colossal statue of Washington, for which congress voted an appropriation of $20,000. It was completed in 1843, and now stands in front of the National capitol. In inscribing his name on this statue, Mr. Greenough, instead of the usual Latin word "fecit" (has done it), wrote " Horatio Greenough faeiebat" (tried to do it). Edward Everett wrote: "I regard Greenough's 'Washington' as one of the greatest works of sculpture of modern times. I do not know the work which can justly be preferred to it, whether we consider the purity of the taste, the loftiness of the conception, the truth of the character, or the accuracy of an anatomical study and mechanical skill." Among Greenough's marble busts are those of John Adams, John Quincy Adams, John Jacob Astor, James Fenimore Cooper, Henry Clay, General Lafayette, John Marshall, and Josiah Quincy. His ideal sculptures include "Medora," "The Guardian Angel," "Chanting Cherubs," "Venus Victrix," "Venus contending for the Golden Apple," "Lucifer." and "The Graces." For an extended notice of his works, see Henry T. Tuckerman's "Memorial of Horatio Greenough " (New York, 1853). Greenough's letters to his brother Henry have been edited by Frances B. Greenough (Boston, 1887).--His brother, Henry, architect, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 5 October, 1807; died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 31 October, 1883, entered Harvard in 1823, but left in his junior year, and did not receive his degree till 1852. He studied painting and architecture abroad in 1831-'4, 1845-'50, and 1869, planed the Cambridgeport City hall, the Agassiz museum, and many private houses in Cambridge and Boston, including those of Agassiz, Guyot, and Judge Lorrag. In 1852 he superintended the decoration of the Crystal Palace in New York. He published two novels, " Ernest Carroll" (Boston, 1859), and "Apelles "(1860), and translated for the "Courier" Jules Sandeau's " Sacs et parchemins."--Another brother, Richard Saltonstall, sculptor, born in Jamaica Plains, Massachusetts, 27 April, 1819, practiced his art in Paris at the beginning of his career, and was particularly successful as a sculptor of portrait busts. Returning to the United States, he lived for several years in Newport, Rhode Island, during which time he produced numerous works in bronze and marble. In 1874 Greenough again returned to Europe, where he has since spent most of his time. Among his works are a statue of Franklin, placed in the city-hall square of Boston, the "Boy and Eagle," owned by the Boston atheneum ; a "Carthagenian Woman"; " Cupid on a Tortoise" ; "Elaine"; " Circe"; and a " Psyche," which he erected as a monument to his wife in the cemetery at Rome, Italy. His bust of Shakespeare, founded on the Chandos portrait, has been highly praised. --Richard Saltonstall's wife, Sarah Dana (Lea-ING), author, born in Boston, 19 February, 1827; died in Franzensbad, Austria, 9 August, 1885, married Mr. Greenough in 1846. She published " Treason at Home," a novel (3 vols., London, 1865); "Arabesques," four stories of the supernatural (Boston, 1871); "In Extremis, a Story of a Broken Law" (1872) ; and "Mary Magdalene," a poem (London, 1880; with other poems, Boston, 1887).--Henry's son, Francis Boott, physician, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 24 December 1837, was graduated at Harvard in 1859, studied medicine in Pisa and Florence, Italy, and took his degree at Harvard medical school in 1866. In 1871-'5 he was an instructor there.
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