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RAYON, Ignacio Lopez (ri-yong'), Mexican patriot, born in Tlalpujahua in 1773; died in Mexico, 2 February, 1827. He was graduated at the College of San Ildefonso in Mexico, and practised law. In September, 1810, he espoused the cause of independence, joined Miguel Hidalgo in October in Maravatio, and was appointed general secretary. In December he was appointed by Hidalgo secretary of state and foreign relations. He followed the fugitive chiefs to Saltillo, and, after they went to the United States, became the real chief of the revolution in Mexico. He gathered a force of 3,500 men and marched to the south, defeating several Spanish detachments, and on 13 April, 1811, occupied Zacatecas, where he cast cannon, and was busy organizing his army. On the approach of General Felix Calleja he abandoned the city, and in Zitacuaro convened the insurgent chiefs, who appointed in August a governing junta, over which Rayon presided. He published proclamations until General Calleja surrounded the town. AI-though it was valiantly defended by Rayon with only 600 regular soldiers and a great number of Indians, the town was stormed next day. Rayon fled, and, gathering his forces, attacked Toluca, 18 April, 1812. During 1813 disagreements arose between the members of the governing junta, and Rayon separated from them, but he took part in the congress of Chilpaneingo. After the defeat and capture of Matamoros he retired to the mountain fortress of Coporo, occupied by his brother Ramon, and on 4 March, 1815, defeated the royalists under Llano and Hurbide. In September, 1816, he left Coporo, and, after many encounters, was captured by the royalists, 11 December, 1817, and condemned to death, but was pardoned and kept prisoner till 15 November, 1820, when he was released under bail. After the occupation of Mexico by Hurbide, Rayon was appointed in 1822 treasurer of the province of San Luis Potosi, and later he was deputy to congress for Michoacan. Congress promoted him in 1824 major-general, and in 1825 commander-in-chief of Jalisco, which place he occupied till February, 1827, when he was appointed president of the supreme tribunal of war and the navy. In 1842 Santa-Anna ordered Rayon's name to be inscribed in gold letters in the chamber of congress.--His brother, Ramon, born in Tlalpujahua in 1775; died in Mexico, 19 July, 1839, was established in business in Mexico when the revolution began in Dolores in 1810, and hearing that his brother had been appointed Hidalgo's secretary, he abandoned his store and joined the insurgents. He began to study fortification and the art of casting cannon, and soon established a foundry at Zitacuaro, the fortifications of which place he designed, and took an active part in its defence, losing an eye on the retreat. Afterward he established a factory of arms at Tlalpujahua, took part in the principal engagements during 1813-'14, and with his forces retired into the fortress of Coporo, which he had erected, and where he held out for more than two years against the repeated attacks of the royalists, till he was forced by want of provisions and a military mutiny to sign an honorable capitulation, 7 January, 1817. He was so much esteemed by his enemies that he obtained in 1818 from the viceroy Apodaca the pardon of his brother Ignacio. After the triumph of Hurbide he retired to private life, and opened several industrial establishments. In 1834 Santa-Anna appointed him chief of operations against the insurgents of Michoacan, and in a short campaign he pacified the province, capturing Morelia on 14 June, 1834, and re-establishing confidence by his humane measures. At the time of his death he was governor of the state of Mexico.
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