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IRALA, or IRAOLA, Domingo Martinez de (e-rah'-lah, or e-rah-o'-lah), Spanish soldier, born in Vergara, Guipuzcoa, in 1486; died in Asuncion, Paraguay, in 1557. He sailed in 1534 in the expedition of Pedro de Mendoza to South America, and assisted in the foundation of Buenos Ayres on 2 February, 1535. He was soon appointed second in command of the expedition of Ayolas to explore the Parana and Paraguay, which started in 1536, and after founding Asuncion on 15 August, ascended the river to 20º south latitude, where Irala was left in charge of the ships while Ayolas started on his unfortunate expedition to the interior. After the news of Ayolas's death was received, the officers and colonists elected Irala governor, about the middle of 1538. Irala took some wise measures to protect Asuncion, and quelled a general rising of the Indians. On 15 March, 1542, the newly appointed adelantado, Cabeza de Vaca (q. v.), appeared, and appointed Irala his deputy, but, desiring to keel) him absent, sent him on a voyage of exploration to the upper Paraguay, in which he reached 17º north latitude, at the port of Los Reyes, returning to Asuncion in February, 1543. Cabeza de Vaca had excited the hate of the officers and clergy, and by a revolution on 25 April, 1544, was deposed, imprisoned, and sent to Spain, and Irala for the second time was chosen governor. In 1546 he undertook his third expedition, to discover an overland route to Peru, and, leaving his vessels again at Los Reyes, set out with about 300 Spaniards and 3,500 Indian allies to the northwest, and at the foot of the Andes he met Spanish-speaking Indians, who belonged to the army of Pedro Anzures. From them he heard of Gonzalo Pizarro's revolution and the triumph of President La Gasca, to whom he sent an expedition under Nuflo de Chaves to ask for a confirmation of his commission. Forced by his soldiers, he at last retraced his steps, and after extreme hardships, not having found the vessels which he had left at Los Reyes, arrived at Asuncion, having been absent two years, and found the colony in revolution. Diego de Abreu was in command, and refused to surrender the government, but Irala defeated him, conducting the colony with vigor and wisdom, and obtaining at last from Spain recognition of his government. In 1550 he undertook his last personal expedition, which, on account of the privations that were suffered by the army, is known as the "Mala Entrada," or unfortunate invasion. He continued to send out expeditions for the consolidation of the Spanish rule, including one in 1554 under Nuflo de Chaves for the conquest of the province of Guayra, and one in 1557 under Melgarejo to consolidate this conquest and found the town of Ontiveros.
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