Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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BAILEY, Jacob Whitman, naturalist, born in Ward (now Auburn), Massachusetts, 29 April 1811; died in West Point, New York, 26 February 1857. He received a common-school education at Providence, Rhode Island, and then studied at West Point, where he was graduated in 1832. lie was appointed lieutenant in the artillery, and during the following six years served at various military stations in South Carolina and Virginia. From 1834 until his death he was successively assistant, acting, and full professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology, at the military academy. His scientific reputation was achieved principally by his researches in microscopy, and he may be regarded as the pioneer in this means of investigation in the United States. The indicator bearing his name, and other improvements in the construction of the microscope, were devised by him. He made numerous collections; that of microscopic objects containing over 3,000 slides, and his collection of algae about 4,500 specimens. These, together with his books and papers, were bequeathed to the Boston society of natural history. In 1856 he was elected president of the American association of the advancement of science, and he was a member of many other scientific bodies both in this country and Europe. He was the author of more than fifty papers, which appeared in the "American Journal of Science and Arts," "Transactions of the Association of Geologists and Naturalists," "The Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge," and "Journal of Microscopic Science," and also of a volume of "Microscopic Sketches," which con-rained about 3,000 original figures, and a paper on infusorial fossils in California in the reports of the Pacific railway survey. See the sketch of his life and scientific labors given in the "American Journal of Science and Arts" (2d series, vol. xxv.)*His son, Loring" Woart, chemist and geologist, born in West Point, New York, 28 September 1839, studied at Brown University and then at Harvard, where he was graduated in 1859. In 1861 he was appointed professor of chemistry and natural history in the University of New Brunswick, at Fredericton. For many years he has been connected with the geological survey of Canada, to whose reports he has regularly contributed accounts of his work. Tie has written scientific papers for the "Canadian Naturalist" and "Canadian Record," and has published "Mines and Minerals of New Brunswick" (1864) and the "Geology of Southern New Brunswick" (1865).*Another son, William Whitman, botanist, born in West Point, New York, 22 February 1843, was graduated at Brown in 1864, after which he devoted special attention to botany at Harvard under the direction of Professor Asa Gray and Professor G. L. Goodale. In 1867 he served as botanist to the United States geological survey of the 40th parallel, and from 1869 to 1871 was assistant librarian of the Providence athenaeum. In 1877 he became instructor of botany at Brown, and in 1881 professor. He is a contributor of prose and verse to periodicals, and has published a "Botanical Collector's Hand-Book" (Boston, 1881).
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