Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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NORMAND, Jacques Etienne (nor-mong), French communist, born in Abbeville in 1809; died in San Antonio, Texas, in 1867. He became a convert of the Saint Simonists, and attached himself to Bartholemy Enfantin, and afterward to Jean Reybaud, but separated from them, and during the revolution of 1848 petitioned the legislative assembly to be permitted to organize a communist colony in Picardy. Prince Louis Napoleon, on his election as president, decreed the expulsion of Normand from the territory of the republic, and the latter, emigrating to this country, travelled for two years in the eastern and southern states. In 1851 he went to Texas to join another expelled communist, Victor Considerant, and, as he had large means, he bought 2,000 acres of land near San Antonio and established there with a band of adventurers the communistic colony of La Reunion, which prospered somewhat at the outset, as Normand supplied all expenses, while the settlers lived in idleness. But numerous women of bad character also joined the colony, and, as Normand and Considerant insisted on a community of wives, the authorities of Texas expelled the colony. Normand took refuge in San Antonio, and several times petitioned the legislature for the reopening of his colony, but to no avail, he made several attempts in 1857 and 1861 to establish new communities near El Paso, and again in La Reunion, but was arrested on the latter occasion and imprisoned for five years. He published, among other works, "Principes de socialisme" (Paris, 1846) ; "Theorie de la commune naturelle " (1855)" "Theorie de la republique communiste universelle" (Brussels, 1860).
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