Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
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CLARKE, James Freeman, clergyman, born in Hanover, New Hampshire, 4 April, 1810. He is a grandson of General William Hull and a cousin of Com. Isaac Hull. He studied at the Boston Latin-school, and was graduated at Harvard in 1829, and at Cambridge divinity-school in 1833. From 1833 till 1840 he was pastor of the Unitarian church in Louisville, Kentucky, and also edited the "Western Messenger" (Louisville) from 1836 till 1839. He then returned to Boston, where, in 1841, he founded the Church of the Disciples, of which he was pastor for forty-five years. In this church the seats are free, and the worship, a form devised by Dr. Clarke, combines the features of responses on the part of the congregation as in the English church, the extempore prayer of the Congregationalists, and the silent prayer of the Friends. He has been prominent in all educational and reform movements in Boston. For many years he has been one of the overseers of Harvard University, where, from 1867 till 1871, he was professor of natural religion and Christian doctrine, and during 1876-'7 lecturer on ethnic religions. He is also a member of the State board of education, and trustee of the Boston public library. In connection with his friends, William H. Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, he prepared the "Memoirs of Margaret Fuller D'Ossoli" (Boston, 1852). His published works include" Theodore, or the Sceptic's Conversion," translated from the German of De Wette (Boston, 1841); "History of the Campaign of 1812, and Defence of General William Hull for the Surrender of Detroit" (New York, 1848), "Eleven Weeks in Europe" (Boston, 1852); "Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness of Sin" (1852); "Christian Doctrine of Prayer" (1854); "Ka.rl Hase. Life of Jesus," translated from the German (1860); "Service Book" (1844); "Disciples' Hymn Book" (1844); " Orthodoxy : its Truths and Errors" (1866); "The Hour which Cometh," sermons (1864); "Steps of Belief, or Rational Christianity maintained against Atheism, Free Religion, and Romanism" (1870); "Ten Great Religions," an essay in comparative theology (1871-'83): "Go up Higher, or Religion in Common Life," sermons (1877); " Common Sense in Religion, essays (1879); "Exotics: Attempts to Domesticate Them," translations in verse (1876); "Essentials and Non-Essentials in Religion" (1878);" How to Find the Stars," and account of the astronomical lantern (invented and patented by him) and its use (1878); "Memoria1 and Biographica1 Sketches" (1878); "Events and Epochs in Religious History "(1881); "Legend of Thomas Didymus, the Jewish Sceptic" (New York, 1881); " Self-Culture" (Boston, 1882); "The Ideas of the Apostle Paul " (1884); "Anti-Slavery Days" (New York, 1884); "Manual of Unitarian Belief" (1884); "Every-Day Religion" (Boston, 1886); and "Vexed Questions" (1886).
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