Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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CARLETON, James Henry, soldier, born in Maine in 1814; died in San Antonio, Texas, 7 January, 1873. He was a lieutenant of Maine volunteers during what was known as the Aroostook war, relative to the northeastern boundary of the United States, and in February, 1839, after the conclusion of that controversy, was commissioned second lieutenant of the 1st United States dragoons. He was promoted to first lieutenant on 17 March, 1845, and was assistant commissary of subsistence of Kearny's expedition to the Rocky mountains in 1846. He served on General Wool's staff in Mexico, became captain on 16 February, 1847, and was brevetted major on the 23d of that month for gallantry at Buena Vista. After the Mexican war he was engaged principally on exploring expeditions and against hostile Indians. On 7 September, 1861, he was commissioned major of the 6th cavalry and ordered to southern California. In the spring of 1862 he raised a body Of troops known as the "California column," and marched with them across the Yuma and Gila deserts to Mesilla on the Rio Grande. On 28 April he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and ordered to relieve General Canby as commander of the department of New Mexico, where he remained for several years, taking part in several engagements. On 13 March, 1865, he was raised by brevet through all ranks up to brigadier-general in the regular army for his services m New Mexico, and brevetted major general, United States army, for his conduct during the war. On 31 July, 1866, he was commissioned lieutenant colonel of the 4th cavalry, and in June, 1868, promoted to colonel of the 2d cavalry and ordered with his regiment soon after to Texas. General Carleton published "The Battle of Buena Vista, with the Operations of the Army of Occupation for one Month " (New York, 1848), and occasionally contributed to military periodicals.
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