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Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor



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James Jackson

JACKSON, James, soldier, born in Moreton-Hampstead, Devonshire, England, 21 September, 1757; died in Washington, D. C., 16 March, 1806. He came to this country in 1772, and studied law in Savannah, Georgia He was active in repelling the British from Savannah in March, 1776, and commanded a company until the Florida expedition of General Howe. He was made brigade-major of Georgia militia in 1778, and was wounded in the skirmish at Midway, Georgia, in which General James Screven was killed. He took part in the defence of Savannah, and when it was captured, 29 December, 1778, he fled to South Carolina, where he joined General Moultrie. His appearance was so wretched while in his flight that he was arrested by a party of Whigs, tried and condemned as a spy, and was about to be executed when a reputable citizen of Georgia, who knew him, identified and saved him. In March, 1780, he fought a duel with Lieutenant Governor Wells, and killed his antagonist, but was wounded. He joined Colonel Elijah Clark in August, 1780, was volunteer aide to Sumter at Blackstocks, and in 1781 was brigade-major to General Pickens, sharing in the victory of the Cow-pens. At the battle of Long Cane, when Colonel Clark was disabled, Jackson saved his company from dispersion, was at the siege of Augusta, and left in charge of the garrison after the expulsion of the British. He next commanded a legionary corps, with which he did excellent service. At the close of the war the assembly of the state of Georgia presented him with a house and lot in Savannah. He engaged successfully in the practice of law, was made a brigadier-general in 1786, and was elected governor of Georgia in 1788, but declined to serve, pleading youth and inexperience. He was a member of the convention that adopted the first constitution of Georgia, and was elected a representative in the 1st congress, serving from 20 April, 1789, till 3 March, 1791. He was afterward chosen United States senator from Georgia, and served from 2 December, 1793, till 1795, when he resigned. He was governor of Georgia in 1798-1801, and was again elected a senator, serving from 7 December, 1801, till his death. While in congress he strongly opposed the bill for the suppression of the slave-trade.--His brother, Henry, educator, born in Moreton-Hampstead, Devonshire, England, 7 July, 1778; died near Athens, Georgia, 26 April, 1840, came to the United States at the age of twelve, and was educated by James. He was graduated in the Medical college of Philadelphia, and in 1811 was appointed professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in the University of Georgia. He filled this chair until his appointment in 1814 as secretary of legation in France, and on the return of the United States minister, William H. Crawford, remained as charge d'affaires until 1817. After his return he resumed his duties as professor, and continued to discharge them till 1828, when he retired. He was admired for his talents, and esteemed for his virtues and amiable qualities.--Henry's son, Henry Rootes, soldier, born in Athens, Georgia, 24 June, 1820, was graduated at Yale in 1839. He was admitted to the bar of Georgia in 1840, appointed United States district attorney for the state in 1843, and was colonel of a Georgia regiment in the Mexican war. In 1848-'9 he was editor and part owner of the Savannah "Georgian." he was judge of the superior court of Georgia from December, 1849, till the summer of 1853, when he resigned to become United States charge d'affaires at the court of Austria, and was minister resident there from the summer of 1854 till the summer of 1858, when he resigned. Shortly after his return to Savannah he was appointed by the United States government associate counsel with the district attorney for Georgia in the prosecution of the persons connected with the importation of slaves on "The Wanderer," and was actively engaged for two years in this work. In December, 1858, he was elected chancellor of the University of Georgia, but after some correspondence retired from the office. He was appointed major-general to command the forces of Georgia after the passage of the ordinance of secession, and was judge of Confederate courts from 20 March, 1861, till 17 August, 1861, when he retired to accept the commission of brigadier-general in the Confederate army. In December, 1861, he was appointed major-general of a division of Georgia troops in the field, was reappointed brigadier-general in the Confederate army in 1863, and assigned a command on the upper Potomac. He was under Hood in his expedition to Tennessee in the autumn of 1864, participated in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, and was taken prisoner, with his entire command, at the latter place. As a prisoner of war he was taken first to Johnson's island, and then to Fort Warren, where he remained till the end of the war. After his liberation he resumed the practice of law at Savannah. He was appointed United States minister to Mexico on 23 March, 1885, but resigned, 30 June, 1885, and withdrew from office in the following October. He has been president of the Georgia historical society, Savannah, trustee of Telfair academy of arts and sciences in that city, and on 8 October, 1875, was made a trustee of the Peabody education fund. He is the author of "Tallulah, and Other Poems" (Savannah, 1851).-James's grandson, James, jurist, born in Jefferson county, Georgia, 18 October, 1819; died in Atlanta, Georgia, 13 January, 1887, was graduated at the University of Georgia in 1837, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1840. He was in the legislature in 1840-'1, and was elected secretary of the senate of Georgia, which office he held for one year. He was elected judge of the superior court in 1846, and remained on the bench till 1859, when he resigned, having been chosen as a Democrat to congress, where he served until Georgia withdrew from the Union. He was then made judge-advocate of Stonewall Jackson's corps of the Confederate army, and served until the close of the civil war. He afterward practised law at Macon, was appointed associate justice of the supreme court of Georgia in August, 1875, and chief justice in 1879, which office he held till his death. He was a delegate to every conference of the Methodist church after the admission of lay delegates, and was a delegate to the oecumenical conference in London. Judge Jackson was a strong advocate of the union of the northern and southern Methodist churches. He was for many years a trustee of the University of Georgia.

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