Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum
   You are in: Museum of History >> Hall of North and South Americans >> James Lawrence





American’s Four United Republics: Discovery-Based Curriculum

For more information go to Historic.us

 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889 and 1999. Virtualology.com warns that these 19th Century biographies contain errors and bias. We rely on volunteers to edit the historic biographies on a continual basis. If you would like to edit this biography please submit a rewritten biography in text form . If acceptable, the new biography will be published above the 19th Century Appleton's Cyclopedia Biography citing the volunteer editor





Virtual American Biographies

Over 30,000 personalities with thousands of 19th Century illustrations, signatures, and exceptional life stories. Virtualology.com welcomes editing and additions to the biographies. To become this site's editor or a contributor Click Here or e-mail Virtualology here.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 





Click on an image to view full-sized

James Lawrence

LAWRENCE, James, naval officer, born in Burlington, New Jersey, I October, 1781; died at sea, 6 June, 1813. He received an appointment as midshipman in 1798, and was made acting lieutenant in two years, though he did not receive his commission until 1802. He joined the squadron that was engaged in the war with Tripoli, and distinguished himself while commanding a gun-boat, and also as second in command of Decatur's daring and successful expedition to destroy the captured frigate "Philadelphia" under the walls of Tripoli. Lawrence spent nearly five years in desultory warfare on the Barbary coast. In 1808 he was 1st lieutenant of the "Constitution." and then in command of the "Argus," "Vixen," and "Wasp." He was promoted to captain in 1811, and placed in command of the "Hernet." After war with Great Britain was declared, he made a cruise on the coast of Brazil. He blockaded the British man-of-war " Bonne Citeyenne" in the port of San Salvador, and challenged her captain to meet him at sea, but failed to bring on an action, and was driven off at the end of a fortnight by a ship of the line. Irritation at having been passed over by the recent promotion of Captain Charles Norris may have led Lawrence to seek for distinction in this manner. A few weeks later he fell in with the "Peacock" brig-of-war off Demerara. Both vessels manoeuvred for the weather-gage, finding that he could weather the enemy, Lawrence tacked, and broadsides were exchanged at short range. The " Peacock" attempted to wear, and the " Hornet," running down on her quarter, poured in a heavy fire, which trip-pied her and compelled a surrender in less than fifteen minutes. She soon sank, drowning several of her crew and three men of those that were sent from the "Hornet." Lawrence had a slight advantage in weight of metal, and a greater in the superior accuracy of his fire, as shown by the condition of his opponent. The "Peacock" lost her captain and nearly one third of her crew, while the "Hornet " had only one man killed and two wounded. Lawrence gained considerable reputation by this victory, and was sent to Boston to take command of the frigate " Chesapeake." A few days after his arrival a challenge was sent in by Captain Broke (q. v.), of the British frig-ate "Shannon," which was the cruising in the offring. A fair meeting was promised, and it was pointed i out that he could not hope to get to sea in the presence of the British squadron. In view of his previous action in challenging a British ship, and his imperative orders to proceed to sea, Lawrence was unable to decline a combat when, on 1 June, 1813, he sighted the "Shannon " and ran out to meet her. About thirty miles off Boston he came up with her, and went into action in gallant style. After a few broadsides, the "Chesapeake" fouled her opponent, Lawrence fell mortally wounded, and nearly every officer with him was soon shot down. Broke saw that the men were flinching from their guns, and led his boarders to the "Chesapeake's" deck. The crew of the " Chesapeake" could not be brought up to repel them. Those stationed on deck fought desperately, but in disorder, and the ship was soon in the hands of the enemy. Several incidents of the action show that the crew of the "Chesapeake" lacked discipline. They were newly shipped and imperfectly trained. The "Shannon" was noted for excellent gunnery practice, and her captain had supplied sights for the guns at his own expense. In size and armament there was not much disparity between the ships. Neither was much injured during the brief action, but the " Chesapeake's" loss was 47 killed and 99 wounded, while the "Shannon's" total loss was only 85. Of the "Chesapeake's" wounded, 14 died in a few days, among them Captain Lawrence, and Ludlow, his 1st lieutenant. Both ships were taken to Halifax, where Lawrence was buried with military honors. There was much exultation in England over a victory that seemed to restore the prestige of the British navy. Captain Broke, who had been severely wounded in boarding the "Chesapeake," was made a bare-net, and received other marks of distinction. The remains of Lawrence and Ludlow were restored to the United States, and received with public honors at Salem. Judge Joseph Story delivered an oration there, and they were buried in state in Trinity church-yard, New York city, where there is a monument to Lawrence's memory, represented in the illustration. The intense disappointment that was caused by the loss of the "Chesapeake" might have led the public to criticise the conduct of Lawrence in accepting a contest for which he was so poorly prepared, had it not been for the memory of his tragic fate and his dying injunction, " Don't give up the ship." If he erred in admitting chivalric traditions into modern warfare, it should not be forgotten that he associated with them courtesy and humanity in the highest degree.

Edited Appletons Encyclopedia, Copyright © 2001 VirtualologyTM

Start your search on James Lawrence.


 

 


 


Unauthorized Site: This site and its contents are not affiliated, connected, associated with or authorized by the individual, family, friends, or trademarked entities utilizing any part or the subject's entire name. Any official or affiliated sites that are related to this subject will be hyper linked below upon submission and Evisum, Inc. review.

Copyright© 2000 by Evisum Inc.TM. All rights reserved.
Evisum Inc.TM Privacy Policy

Search:

About Us

 

 

Image Use

Please join us in our mission to incorporate America's Four United Republics discovery-based curriculum into the classroom of every primary and secondary school in the United States of America by July 2, 2026, the nation’s 250th birthday. , the United States of America: We The People Click Here

 

Childhood & Family

Click Here

 

Historic Documents

Articles of Association

Articles of Confederation 1775

Articles of Confederation

Article the First

Coin Act

Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

Emancipation Proclamation

Gettysburg Address

Monroe Doctrine

Northwest Ordinance

No Taxation Without Representation

Thanksgiving Proclamations

Mayflower Compact

Treaty of Paris 1763

Treaty of Paris 1783

Treaty of Versailles

United Nations Charter

United States In Congress Assembled

US Bill of Rights

United States Constitution

US Continental Congress

US Constitution of 1777

US Constitution of 1787

Virginia Declaration of Rights

 

Historic Events

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of Yorktown

Cabinet Room

Civil Rights Movement

Federalist Papers

Fort Duquesne

Fort Necessity

Fort Pitt

French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen

Manhattan Project

Stamp Act Congress

Underground Railroad

US Hospitality

US Presidency

Vietnam War

War of 1812

West Virginia Statehood

Woman Suffrage

World War I

World War II

 

Is it Real?



Declaration of
Independence

Digital Authentication
Click Here

 

America’s Four Republics
The More or Less United States

 
Continental Congress
U.C. Presidents

Peyton Randolph

Henry Middleton

Peyton Randolph

John Hancock

  

Continental Congress
U.S. Presidents

John Hancock

Henry Laurens

John Jay

Samuel Huntington

  

Constitution of 1777
U.S. Presidents

Samuel Huntington

Samuel Johnston
Elected but declined the office

Thomas McKean

John Hanson

Elias Boudinot

Thomas Mifflin

Richard Henry Lee

John Hancock
[
Chairman David Ramsay]

Nathaniel Gorham

Arthur St. Clair

Cyrus Griffin

  

Constitution of 1787
U.S. Presidents

George Washington 

John Adams
Federalist Party


Thomas Jefferson
Republican* Party

James Madison 
Republican* Party

James Monroe
Republican* Party

John Quincy Adams
Republican* Party
Whig Party

Andrew Jackson
Republican* Party
Democratic Party


Martin Van Buren
Democratic Party

William H. Harrison
Whig Party

John Tyler
Whig Party

James K. Polk
Democratic Party

David Atchison**
Democratic Party

Zachary Taylor
Whig Party

Millard Fillmore
Whig Party

Franklin Pierce
Democratic Party

James Buchanan
Democratic Party


Abraham Lincoln 
Republican Party

Jefferson Davis***
Democratic Party

Andrew Johnson
Republican Party

Ulysses S. Grant 
Republican Party

Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Party

James A. Garfield
Republican Party

Chester Arthur 
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party

Benjamin Harrison
Republican Party

Grover Cleveland 
Democratic Party

William McKinley
Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt
Republican Party

William H. Taft 
Republican Party

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic Party

Warren G. Harding 
Republican Party

Calvin Coolidge
Republican Party

Herbert C. Hoover
Republican Party

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic Party

Harry S. Truman
Democratic Party

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party

John F. Kennedy
Democratic Party

Lyndon B. Johnson 
Democratic Party 

Richard M. Nixon 
Republican Party

Gerald R. Ford 
Republican Party

James Earl Carter, Jr. 
Democratic Party

Ronald Wilson Reagan 
Republican Party

George H. W. Bush
Republican Party 

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic Party

George W. Bush 
Republican Party

Barack H. Obama
Democratic Party

Please Visit

Forgotten Founders
Norwich, CT

Annapolis Continental
Congress Society


U.S. Presidency
& Hospitality

© Stan Klos

 

 

 

 


Virtual Museum of Art | Virtual Museum of History | Virtual Public Library | Virtual Science Center | Virtual Museum of Natural History | Virtual War Museum