Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James
Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos. Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton
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GARDINER, James Terry, civil engineer, born in Troy, New York, 6 May, 1842. He was educated at the Rensselaer polytechnic institute and at the Sheffield scientific school, after which he became sub-assistant engineer on the Brooklyn water-works. In 186l-'2 he was inspector in the United States ordnance corps, and was engaged in 1863-'4 in the construction of earthworks around the harbor of San Francisco. During the three following years he was topographical assistant on the geological survey of California, and at this time he made a topographical survey of Yosemite valley and laid out the limits of the reservation. Subsequently he was associated with Clarence King in the United States geological survey of the 40th parallel, and was chief of the geographical and topographical departments until the completion of the work. In 1872 he was appointed United States geographer in charge of such work on the United States geological survey of the territories, under Ferdinand V. Hayden, and conducted the field-work of the surveys until 1875. From 1876 till 1886 he was director of the state survey of New York, and from 1880 till 1886 a member of the New York state board of health. He then became consulting engineer to the state board of health, and he also holds the office of consulting engineer in all mining matters, especially concerning coal, to the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa F6, the Mexican Central, the Atlantic and Pacific, and the Mexican National railroads. Mr. Gardiner is a member of scientific societies, and was secretary in 1876 of the American geographical society. His publications are principally reports of his work, which have appeared as public documents.
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